Acquired heart disease is the morphological change of heart valve developed during the life of the patient as a result of disease or traumatic injury of the heart.
The majority of acquired heart diseases are rheumatic in nature. Valvular heart cause excessive loads on the respective parts of the heart, hypertrophy of the myocardium and ultimately to heart failure. The heart consists of four chambers: the left atrium and ventricle, between which is the mitral valve and right atrium and ventricle, between which is located the tricuspid valve. At the exit into the aorta and pulmonary artery is respectively aortic valve and the valve of the pulmonary artery. The most common malformations of the mitral valve (50-70%), somewhat less aortic (8-27%). Isolated malformations of tricuspid valve are rare, less than 1% of cases, but in combination with other vices valves defeat tricuspid valve is found in half of patients.
Causes of heart disease
The cause of the defeat of valves are often rheumatism, atherosclerosis, infectious endocarditis. Much less common heart defects due to syphilitic lesions, trauma, diffuse connective tissue diseases (ankylosing spondylitis, systemic scleroderma, dermatomyositis) or degenerative changes of the valves with the inclusion of salts of lime. In the folds of the valves in inflammation, leading to their damage, destruction and scar deformation. When disturbed function of the valves of the heart has to work harder. Develops hipertrofia (thickening) of the heart. In a further cavity of the heart expands, decreases contractility of the heart muscle, there are signs of heart failure.
Symptoms of heart disease
Symptoms depend on the affected valve, or a combination of the affected valves. In General hemodynamics allocate compensated, subcompensated and decompensated vices.
The patient may be concerned about increased heart rate, shortness of breath, swelling and other symptoms of heart failure.
Diagnosis of heart disease
Diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases conducts cardiologist on the basis of clinical symptoms, auscultation of the heart and of additional methods of research:
– electrocardiography (ECG);
echocardiography (ECHO KG);
– chest x-ray.
The sensing of the heart cavities and angiography are performed only when the indications for surgical treatment of malformations.
Treatment of valvular heart disease
Conservative treatment is aimed at preventing recurrence and complications of the underlying disease, the correction of cardiac arrhythmias, prevention and treatment of heart failure.
The main treatment of heart disease surgery. The patient with acquired heart disease needs in a timely consultation of the surgeon, not missing deadlines effective surgical treatment.