Cardiology

Arterial hypertension


Arterial hypertension - causes, symptoms and treatment

Hypertension (hypertension, hypertensive heart disease) is the most frequent chronic disease in adults, is associated with increased blood pressure.

Arterial hypertension – what is it?

Completely cure this disease, but blood pressure can be kept under control. High blood pressure is one of the three risk factors of coronary heart disease that you can control (the risk in this case involves not only how high blood pressure rises, but the time during which there is high blood pressure). Timely control of the pressure will help to reduce the risk of kidney disease. The sooner you revealed arterial hypertension and began to watch her in the dynamics, the lower the risk of complications of hypertension in the future.

Causes of hypertension

The causes of hypertension are unknown in 90% of cases. Nevertheless, there are certain factors that increase the risk of developing hypertension:
Causes of hypertensionage (with the age of the wall of large arteries become more frigid, and because of this increased vascular resistance to blood flow, hence increases pressure);
hereditary;
floor (usually arterial hypertension suffer men);
smoking;
excessive alcohol consumption, salt, obesity, lack of physical activity;
excessive exposure to stress;
kidney disease;
the increased level of adrenaline in the blood;
congenital heart disease;
regular use of certain medications (for example, according to some regular intake of oral contraceptives);
late toxemia of pregnancy (complication of pregnancy).

Symptoms of hypertension

Increased blood pressure may not be accompanied by any symptoms and is discovered by accident, when measuring blood pressure. In some cases, there may be headache, dizziness, flashing flies before the eyes.

Complications of hypertension

– stroke;
heart attack;
– visual disturbances;
– heart failure;
– renal failure.

What to do and how to treat?

To lower blood pressure and thereby reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in the following ways:

If you suffer from excess weight, you need to reset it at least partly because excess weight increases the risk of developing hypertension. Losing weight by 3-5 kg, you will be able to reduce pressure and subsequent well control it. Achieving a lower weight, you will also be able to reduce cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar. Weight normalization remains the most effective drug-free method of pressure control.

Regular exercise. Regular exercise in the fresh air, such as walking, running, Biking, swimming can prevent the increase in blood pressure. More vigorous physical activity will also help to reduce weight and to reduce the impact of stress on the body. Experts recommend exercise for 30 to 60 minutes 3-5 times per week.

Make sure that the food was not very salty. You should limit daily salt intake to 2.4 mg this can be Achieved, if less salt food, to abandon the use of canned foods, processed foods, fast food products.

Limit alcohol. It is noticed that people who excessively consume alcohol more frequently observed hypertension, weight gain, making the control of blood pressure is difficult. It is best not to drink alcohol at all or limit consumption to two drinks per day for men and one for women. The word “drink” in this case means, for example, 350 ml of beer, 120 ml of wine or 30 ml of 100-degree liqueur.

Eat more potassium, because this way you can also reduce blood pressure. Sources of potassium are fruits and vegetables. Preferably there are at least five servings of vegetable or fruit salads, desserts per day.

It is extremely important to quit Smoking, because Smoking itself though does not cause hypertension, but nevertheless is a significant risk of coronary heart disease.
Food should not be very bold. Observations show that low-fat diet helps to reduce cholesterol in the blood and thus reduce the risk of coronary vessels. Moreover, low-fat diet promotes weight loss.

If your doctor has prescribed any antihypertensive medication, take strictly as tells you the doctor. Of any adverse reactions and unwanted effects tell your doctor. Do not stop taking the medication without consulting with your doctor.

Regularly visit your doctor. Once you have achieved the desired effect, and the pressure is decreased, it is necessary to constantly monitor it. Unfortunately, there are no clear external signs by which you could understand that the pressure rises again. Recommend to regularly measure blood pressure at home and to visit the doctor at least once a year to monitor the overall status and effectiveness of the therapy).

Drug treatment of hypertension

treatment of hypertensionThe physician should establish the diagnosis, to conduct additional tests to check the condition of the fundus of the eye, the kidneys, to explore the heart) may prescribe antihypertensive therapy, to identify possible complications. Usually the patient with newly diagnosed arterial hypertension admitted to conduct all necessary research and selection of therapy. There are different degrees of severity of hypertension (defined as the numbers of blood pressure and the presence of various complications).

So, if you are diagnosed with hypertension, you should:
be sure to take all medications prescribed by a doctor (follow the advice of a doctor and always read instructions);
take medicine at the same time of day;
never miss a medication due to the fact that your pressure is normal. We will discuss your observations with your doctor.
Do not stop taking the drugs, if the pressure became normal. They were normal because you are taking the medication.

Prevention of hypertension

If your family members is observed arterial hypertension (hypertension), or you are older than 30 years, regularly measure the pressure. Refrain from Smoking, drinking alcoholic drinks. Follow low-fat and salted diet. Exercise, preferably outdoors (Biking, running, active walking). Try to avoid stress, learn to overcome stressful situations. Maintain normal body weight.