Arthritis is the General name for inflammatory diseases of the joints. The disease is widespread, and over time, the incidence is increasing. In Africa and Asia, the arthritis spread not as widespread as in Europe and North America.
Causes of arthritis
Causes of arthritis can be very different. Most often we are talking about infectious processes, allergic reactions, disorders of the immune system, mental trauma. One of the reasons for arthritis is the natural wear of the joints.
Aggravating factors in the development of arthritis can be bad environmental conditions, unbalanced diet, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and genetic predisposition. Some types of so-called “professional” arthritis develops due to years of stress on the same muscle groups and joints of the musculoskeletal system.
Symptoms of arthritis
Symptoms of arthritis of the same type. The patient feels pain and stiffness in the affected joint. There may be swelling in the diseased joint, restricting its movement and local temperature rise. In some cases arthritis is accompanied by changes in clinical and laboratory indicators: onset of fever, weakness, elevated ESR, leukocytosis.
Diagnosis of arthritis
Diagnosis of arthritis includes history taking, external examination of the patient for the presence of the characteristic signs of the inflammatory process in the joints, as well as laboratory and instrumental methods of research. Analysis of blood and joint fluid reveals the presence of inflammation, and x-ray studies reveal characteristic signs of inflammation of the joints. In the diagnosis of arthritis is also used in computer and magnetic resonance tomography, and ultrasound. Recently has been applied and arthroscopy, enabling a thorough inspection of the glenoid cavity, and also collect synovial fluid for further laboratory analyses.
Classification of arthritis
Depending on the reasons distinguish infectious, degenerative, traumatic arthritis, and arthritis associated with other diseases. Depending on the number of affected joints secrete monoartrit (with the defeat of one joint) and polyarthritis – inflammation of several joints.
With the current arthritis is acute or chronic. Acute arthritis occurs suddenly and is accompanied by severe pain in the joints and fever. For chronic arthritis characterized by slow and gradual progression. In some cases, acute arthritis becomes chronic.
What to do for arthritis
The presence of discomfort and pain in the joints is the reason for going to the doctor. Moderate exercise, special exercises for arthritis and weight control will help ease the patient’s condition.
The patient should strictly adhere to all the doctor’s recommendations, including those regarding diet.
Treatment of arthritis should be comprehensive and include both medical therapy and correction of lifestyle, physiotherapy and Spa treatment. As the main drugs in the treatment of arthritis are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Nise, Nurofen, Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Meloxicam, etc). To eliminate inflammation in the affected joints apply corticosteroid and glucocorticoid drugs (Diprospan). In the absence of extra-articular manifestations corticosteroids try not to assign. Intra-articular injection of corticosteroids is useful when lack of therapeutic effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and in the presence of fever. May apply enzyme preparations to improve the circulation of blood and its rheological properties (Wobenzym and others).
Complications of arthritis
Complications of arthritis are early and late. The early complications include cellulitis, panarteritis (acute suppurative arthritis). By late complications include osteomyelitis, sepsis, contractures and pathological dislocation.
Prevention of arthritis
Prevention of arthritis is to avoid and eliminate all possible precipitating factors. Healthy lifestyle, control of weight, balanced diet, abstinence from excessive alcohol consumption and regular preventive examinations by a physician will significantly reduce the likelihood of developing arthritis.