Gastroenterology

Ascites


Ascites - causes, symptoms and treatment

Ascites (abdominal dropsy) is a complication of various conditions and diseases.

Ascites is manifested by an accumulation of fluid within the abdominal cavity. As a consequence, increases the amount of stomach, arise subjectively unpleasant symptoms and secondary disorders in the organs of the abdominal cavity.

This condition requires urgent intervention of doctors, especially with the rapid accumulation of fluid.

Causes of ascites

The basis for the development of ascites is always a pathology, as the normal conditions for the functioning of the abdominal cavity does not involve the allocation of large amounts of fluid.

A small amount is allocated only in the peritoneum, bowel loops freely slid relative to each other and are glued together, forming adhesions. Then this liquid is sucked back.

Causes of ascitesWhen working properly, this mechanism suffers function of fluid secretion and the function of the reverse suction. This leads to the formation of ascites and the accumulation of excess fluid in the abdomen.

Often ascites is a common symptom of portal hypertension, cirrhosis, hepatitis, thrombosis of hepatic veins.

The process may occur when a blood cancer and blood diseases non-neoplastic nature, with heart disease with blood circulation disorders and congestive heart failure.

Can cause ascites problems with lymph circulation, problems with the thyroid gland and the kidneys.

Symptoms of ascites

The symptoms of ascites largely depend on the cause and the amount of fluid and the speed of its formation.

Symptoms can gradually grow, and can occur suddenly, within a few days or even hours.

When ascites marked increase in abdominal size and the inability to button my pants or belts, weight gain.

Symptoms of ascitesFeel bursting pain, heartburn and belching, nausea, flatulence.

As I grew, it looks like pregnant, with the protrusion of the navel and the tension of the skin. Upright belly droops, in a landscape is spread on the sides, speaking from the side of the ribs.

When a large volume of the stomach causes severe shortness of breath with swelling of hands and feet, may be impaired movement, difficult slopes.

You may experience hemorrhoids, hernia, fall out rectum, varicocele develops.

In the manifest also common symptoms of the disease:
– the fever,
– the phenomenon of toxicity,
– losing weight on the back of an increase in the volume of the stomach,
– expansion of the saphenous veins in the abdomen,
– blueness of the extremities.

On average in the abdominal cavity may accumulate from 5 to 20 liters of fluid.

Diagnosis of ascites

The basis of the diagnostic indications for abdominal enlargement associated with diseases. Also, the first data can be obtained by examination of abdominal palpation and percussion – revealed typical symptoms.

It is necessary to perform an abdominal ultrasound and large vessels, the study of the liver, diagnostic laparoscopy and abdominal puncture (paracentesis), with the intake of fluid for analysis.

To determine the cause of ascites prescribe blood tests and urine tests, blood chemistry and immunological studies. Additionally, you may need a chest x-ray and esophagoscopy of the esophagus.

Methods of treatment of ascites

Methods of treatment of ascitesTreatment of ascites are therapists, surgeons and doctors of various specializations, depending on the cause:
– a diet with restriction of salt and fluid;
– receiving diuretics (lasix, veroshpiron) in combination with potassium-containing drugs (asparkam).
If the cause of ascites – hypertension in the portal vein, we used drugs to reduce, liver (Liv-52, Essentiale), the introduction of plasma or albumin.

If the liquid volume is not reduced, apply laparotomies (puncture of the abdominal wall and removing excess fluid).

With a large volume of fluid at a time cannot delete more than 5 liters. If the liquid comes quickly, establish peritoneal catheters to avoid adhesions and infection of the peritoneum.

Ascites significantly complicates the course of the underlying disease and is considered a poor prognostic sign.
Ascites may be complicated by peritonitis, bleeding, failure of liver and spleen, brain damage because of the swelling.
On average, the percentage of mortality in patients with severe ascites and 50%.