By far the most common disease of the cardiovascular system is hypertension, is dangerous with its complications, disability and deaths. And there is a clear trend that the disease is “younger” each successive generation gets sick at an earlier age than the previous one. The main symptom of hypertension is high blood pressure, is often detected during the examination or preventive examination. If blood pressure of 150 100 is already an important reason to consult a doctor.
What is considered the norm and pathology in the measurement of pressure? In adults, normal readings are considered to be from 110/70 to 140/90. Such evidence must be in the morning after sleep. The activity numbers can be higher.
In children, these figures vary with age. When physical or emotional burden is an increase of blood pressure as a consequence of the natural reaction of the body, importantly, within 5-10 min, all parameters return to the original. What to do if you have a 150 to 100 and above, and in a calm state, and such pressures are often repeated. In this case, you need to go to the doctor to find the cause and treatment.
Reasons for blood pressure 150 over 100
More than 90% of cases of high blood pressure is an independent nosology, and not a manifestation of any other disease (primary or essential hypertension). The mechanism of occurrence of boils down to what’s going on vasospasm due to a number of reasons:
- genetic predisposition, if in the family there were cases of this disease, especially in the female line. This does not mean that such heir is doomed, with proper nutrition, healthy lifestyle and careful attitude to the disease may not be realized;
- overweight – two-thirds of patients with obesity suffer from high blood pressure;
- lack of exercise – people who do intellectual work, is experiencing a strong emotional load, pressure rise contributes to a large flow of information and frenzied pace of work;
- improper diet — excess salt, check the fluid in the blood vessels, fatty foods, especially at night;
- age is a gradual loss of elasticity of the vascular wall due to proliferation of connective tissue fibers, resulting in no adequate and fast response vessels to the load;
- chronic stress, constant worrying;
- alcohol abuse and heavy smoking.
In addition, there are secondary (symptomatic) hypertension when the cause of high blood pressure is getting any chronic disease. For example, heart disease, chronic renal disease, thyroid disease, atherosclerosis, consequences of traumatic brain injury, etc.
Symptoms of high blood pressure
Contrary to popular belief, high pressure head does not hurt, there may not be any symptoms from time to time, the increased numbers are shocking “seems healthy” people when visiting the doctor for another reason or on physical examination. As the progression of the disease and increased hypertensive experience people begin to feel the ebb and heaviness in the head, weakness, dizziness, darkening or “floaters” in the eyes, nausea, anxiety, sleep disturbances, discomfort and pain in the heart area.
Depending on the level of blood pressure and signs of lesions of other organs, there are three stages of hypertension:
- First stage — blood pressure above 140/90 to 160/90 or 160/100, that is, at an average of blood pressure 150/100. This is the initial stage of the disease, when few symptoms, no serious changes in other organs and systems. Level of high blood pressure unstable. Patients rarely seek medical attention at this stage it is in vain, therefore, not far off the progression of hypertension.
- In the second stage the symptoms are very prominently manifest in the form of angina, dizziness, tinnitus, insomnia, heaviness in the head, impaired work capacity, that is, there have already been suffering a variety of target organs. Blood pressure often rises above 160/100 is usually up to 180/100, tolerated heavier than the previous stage, usually makes contact the clinic.
- Third stage the most severe, because the pressure there is almost constant above 180/100, people get used to it, the heart is constantly working with high loads, wears out faster. Typically, these patients have coronary heart disease, angina, heart rhythm disorders and heart failure.
Thus, at any age is considered normal blood pressure is 120 over 80 with minor fluctuations in either direction. If the pressure often rises to 100 or 150 is steady at this level is the beginning of hypertension. What to do in this case? Of course, one must regardless of how old he is, to go to the doctor for examination to confirm the diagnosis, identify concomitant diseases.
The inspection involves the examination of the physician, the clarification of history (heredity, occupation, lifestyle, bad habits), General blood and urine analysis, blood sugar and cholesterol, ECG, consultation optometrist fundus examination and neurologist. If necessary, involve other specialists (cardiologist, endocrinologist) and additional methods of examination (ultrasound of the heart, MRI, daily monitoring of arterial pressure, etc.). After the examination, taking into account the medical history and the results obtained, the doctor will prescribe treatment.
Treatment of blood pressure 150/100
In severe stages of hypertension hospitalization of the person for selection of adequate therapy. It is important to visit a doctor at least in order to know what to do when the pressure increases and how to reduce it.
In milder cases, it is possible to start with the recommendations of the doctor in the clinic:
- make a correction in lifestyle (proper diet with restriction of salt and fat, reducing weight, quitting Smoking, alcohol and caffeinated substances, dosed physical activity, regular walks in the fresh air);
- to purchase a blood pressure cuff to monitor blood pressure twice daily – in the morning after rising and evening before sleeping, even in the absence of complaints;
- to take drugs strictly on prescription, you cannot self-medicate, to cancel the drug is only treating doctor.
Typically, blood pressure pills are appointed for the long term in order to attain optimal effect. The most common groups of antihypertensive drugs:
- Diuretics (medications with diuretic) – Furosemide, Indapamide, Arifon, Indap. These drugs remove excess fluid, reducing swelling. The treatment begins with them, if there are no contraindications, e.g., diabetes, renal failure, gout, allergies, not during pregnancy and lactation;
- Beta-blockers – Bisoprolol, Metoprolol, Celiprolol reduce the pressure due to the expansion of blood vessels, ischemia heart rate and reduce the load on the heart muscle. Contraindicated in pregnancy, allergies, hypotension, bradycardia;
- ACE Inhibitors – Enalapril, Perindopril, Ramipril also expand blood vessels, but through other mechanisms. Contraindicated in pregnancy, in violation of renal function;
- Calcium channel blockers – Verapamil, Amlodipine, Diltiazem. Particularly effective in hypertension combined with cardiac arrhythmias, increased heart rate. Contraindicated in bradycardia, the blockade in the conduction system of the heart, pregnancy.
Often use combinations of drugs from different groups. In addition, prescribed sedatives, herbal medicine, according to the testimony of a means to strengthen the heart muscle, statins, etc. depending on the identified comorbidity.