Blood pressure

Blood pressure – norm and pathology


Blood pressure - norm and pathology

One of the most common health complaints and one of the most “favorite” diseases in the elderly is increased blood pressure. This pathology is able to explain any changes in mood, bad mood, and other troubles. Blood pressure can rise and fall several times in one day, and the normal pressure of a person is very individual concept.

What is blood pressure and what values are considered normal?

Blood pressureBlood pressure – this is a General term that determines the force with which blood pushes against the walls of blood vessels, it is more correct to call it blood pressure, as has the value of the pressure not only in the arteries and veins and capillaries. But to measure without the help of special devices is only possible pressure in large vessels, which are located on the surface of the body in the arteries.

Blood pressure – depends on what speed and power is reduced to the heart of man, how much blood it can pump in one minute, from the properties of the blood and the resistance of blood vessels.

Factors affecting the value of blood pressure:
-the heart’s ability to contract with sufficient force to ensure proper ejection of blood through the vessels;
-from the rheological properties of blood – the “thicker” the blood, the harder it moves through the vessels, diseases such as diabetes, increased coagulability, have hampered the flow of blood and can cause problems with blood pressure, with thick blood, some doctors prescribe treatment with leeches;
-the elasticity of blood vessels – the blood vessels eventually wear out and can not withstand the increased load – it causes development hypertension in the elderly,
-atherosclerotic changes – reduce the elasticity of the walls;
-sharp narrowing or widening of the blood vessels in the nervous shock or hormonal changes may sharp narrowing or widening of the blood vessels – such as fear, anger or other strong emotions;
-diseases of the endocrine glands.

Normal pressure is determined by the collection of a large number of parameters, and for each age, sex and individual, their performance can change a lot. Medical standards taken the average, healthy people of a certain age. Long been proven that pressure 120\80 cannot and should not be considered as the ideal norm for people of different ages.

To learn what a normal pressure, a person should be in different age periods, you can use the following table

The blood pressure of an adult:
Normal blood pressure is in between 110\70 to 130\85 mm RT. Art.
Low normal pressure – 110\70 – 100\60;
Low blood pressure – hypotension is below 100\60;
Increased normal pressure – 130\85 – 139\89;
High blood pressure – hypertension – 140\90 mm RT. Art.

The indicators are normal blood pressure for different age periods:
16 – 20 years old – 100\70 – 120\80 mm RT. Art.
20 – 40 years – 120\70-130\80;
40 -60 to 140\90;
over 60 years of age – up to 150\90 mm RT. Art.

From the above table, it is seen that the higher the age, the higher normal values of arterial blood pressure is associated with age-related changes in the blood vessels in the heart muscle and other organs. High blood pressure as well as low, can cause various health problems, but in order to determine to blame if the change in pressure level in poor health, it is necessary to measure it and keep a special diary. It is not enough several trips to the clinic or doctor’s visits, only daily regular measurements of pressure, can give correct results.

Measurement of blood pressure

Measurement of blood pressureThe correctness of the diagnosis and the treatment largely depends on the accuracy of blood pressure measurement, because the doctor prescribing the medicine or prescribing treatment, largely focused on the numbers of measurements.

Today, there are different ways of measuring pressure:
The easiest and old – with cuff and sphygmomanometer – here is of great importance to correctly applying the cuff, the ability to use the tonometer and to listen to heart sounds. This measurement requires special training and skills, but when used properly, gives a fairly accurate and reliable results.
Electromanometer – work principle is the same, but the results are visible on a special Board. This facilitates the measurement of pressure and provides more accurate results. But these monitors often break and can show incorrect numbers.

Whatever method was not carried out measurement of blood pressure, you must follow some General rules:
before measurement, half an hour before, to eliminate physical stress, nervous tension, Smoking, eating,and so forth,
to relax, to sit comfortably in the measurement,
posture should be comfortable, back straight, one must have the support, the arm should be free to lie at the level of the chest of the patient,
during the measurement, it is impossible to talk and move,
the measurement is carried out on both hands and preferably a series of measurements with an interval of 5-10 minutes.
If, after correctly performed blood pressure measurements, the figures are very different from the norm, it is necessary to repeat measurements in a few days and upon confirmation, consult a doctor.

High blood pressure
Considered one of the most dangerous diseases of mankind, from hypertension affects about 25% of people worldwide, and this number continues to grow. Hypertension is called the increase in blood pressure above 140\90 mm RT. Art.

Causes of hypertension can be:
-overweight,
-genetic predisposition,
-diseases of internal organs,
-lack of physical activity,
-Smoking and drinking alcohol,
-excessive use of salt,
-nervous stress,
-the other factors.

Hypertension patient suffers from headaches (and here pills headaches will not help), shortness of breath, heart pain, fatigue, insomnia, poor health and other symptoms. In addition, an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, brain lesions, pathology of urinary system and eye diseases.

Treatment of hypertension is a very complex and time-consuming process, where compliance with the recommendations of the doctor depends on the outcome of the disease. It is important to find the cause of the increase of pressure and work on it. Simultaneously providing symptomatic treatment. In each case the drugs, doses, and their combination should be adjusted individually by the attending physician.

Without timely treatment or uncontrolled drug intake, hypertension can not only severely damage health, but also to cause such life-threatening condition, such as hypertensive crisis.

Hypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis is a life-threatening condition caused by a sharp increase in blood pressure and damage to the nervous system and target organs. Figures blood pressure in hypertensive crisis may differ in different patients – someone normally takes 200\150 mm RT. article, and someone already bad at 150\85 mm RT. Art. The nature of the defeat at SC depends on what organs was previously pathology – if aching heart, can occur myocardial infarction, if tormented – headaches – stroke and so on.

Causes of the civil code can be:
-psycho-emotional stress,
-physical activity,
-meteorological changes,
-alcohol intake,
-rich foods with a high content of salt,
-incorrectly selected antihypertensive medications,
-diseases of the endocrine system and internal organs.

During the development of the Ledger the patient’s health is deteriorating, there is a feeling of fear, anxiety, may have nausea, vomiting, darkness before the eyes, swelling and flushing of the face, chills, tremor of the limbs, the unconscious, and even coma.

If you notice these symptoms, you need to put the patient on any flat surface with a raised head and immediately call an ambulance. Before her arrival to try to ensure that the patient rest, fresh air, free from the constraints of clothing, if the patient has long been celebrated AH, then most likely, it takes some anti-hypertensive drug, in this case, before the arrival of the hide you can give to the patient the normal dosage.

Hypotension, low blood pressure
Hypertensive crisisFor many people, especially those suffering from hypertension, it seems that the decrease in pressure may not be a problem, but actually it is not. Consistently low blood pressure that can cause less inconvenience and cause health problems than AG.

The reasons for this pathology may be a genetic predisposition, poor diet and vitamin deficiency, endocrine diseases, nervous stress, total exhaustion, and other problems.

People suffering from hypotension, constantly feeling tired, overwhelmed, he hardly performs daily duties and emotionally retarded. In addition, there is a decrease in memory and brain activity, poor thermoregulation, increased sweating, headaches, drowsiness, pain in the joints and muscles, and a General breakdown in health.

Although unlike hypertension, hypotension does not cause serious health problems, it also needs treatment. And to determine the cause hypotension and treatment can only be a doctor, after detailed examination. And without any medical help, it may be advisable to establish the mode of work and rest, eat well, do not be nervous and give up bad habits.