Infectious diseases

Botulism


Botulism - causes, symptoms and treatment

Botulism — an acute infectious disease caused by the ingestion of food containing the toxin produced by botulism bacteria, and is characterized by paralysis of muscles.

Causes of botulism

Causes of botulismPathogen — bacteria of the genus Clostridium, called the Bacillus of botulism. Exists in two forms-vegetative and spore.

Vegetative forms exist only in the absence of oxygen. They breed and secrete the most powerful natural toxin (poison) — a lethal dose for humans is about 0.3 micrograms. The best temperature conditions for their reproduction and formation of poison — 20-37S. The toxin is destroyed when the 15-minute boiling or conditioning at a temperature of 80C for 30 min. Resistant to acid, can withstand high concentrations of salt, no breaks in the foods containing various spices, canned products, preserved for years.

Disputes (form of vital activity of bacteria in adverse conditions) persist in the environment, resistant to freezing and drying, can withstand 18% saline solution (in seawater average 3.5%), boiling up to 6 h, die completely only when cooking in an autoclave (at a temperature of 120 C for 30 min).

Source of the pathogen — the soil, the silt lakes and seas, the contents of the intestines of wild and domestic animals, birds, fish, mollusks.

Infection occurs when the consumption of food of animal and plant origin contaminated with Clostridium botulinum and stored in the absence (or lack) of oxygen without adequate heat treatment. Usually it’s canned goods or long-term storage products (sausages, ham, smoked, salted and dried fish), home-cooking, where it is impossible to create the necessary temperature regime for the death of spores of the pathogen. In the absence of oxygen they transform into vegetative forms that make up the toxin, which accumulates in the food product, and gaseous waste products that cause bloating the cans. Thus organoleptic properties (sight, smell, taste) of the product are not changed.

Susceptibility of people to the high botulism.

most Often, the infection occurs in the use of mushrooms home canning, dried, or smoked fish. There are family outbreak. Known cases of the deadly disease from not eating product with a toxin, but only impaling it with a fork and use it in the admissions process not contaminated food.

Process of disease development

the Toxin from the gastrointestinal tract is absorbed into the bloodstream and spreads throughout the body, firmly binding and disrupting the nerve cells responsible for muscle function. Be the first to suffer the eye muscles, pharynx and larynx, then the respiratory muscles.

Patients die from respiratory paralysis.

Postponed disease resistant leaves immunity to them.

Symptoms of botulism

the Incubation period-from several hours to days, rarely up to 2-3 days depending on the number of botulinum toxin, trapped in the body of the person.

the Disease begins, as a rule, suddenly. The patient has a dry mouth, and muscle weakness, disturbed vision. Worried about “fog”, “mesh” in front of the eyes, poorly are different nearby objects. The patient can not read, said the vision subjects. Often violated swallowing. There is a feeling of the presence of a foreign body in the throat, scratchy, difficulty swallowing food. In severe cases, water can leak through the nose.

In patients changes the pitch and tone of voice. Mask-like face, pupils dilated, breathing shallow.

Detection. The assumption of botulism is confirmed by detection of botulinum toxin in the patient’s blood, vomit or lavage of the stomach, as well as in food products, which was the source of infection. Therefore, the remains of the suspect product to be kept until the examination of the patient by the doctor.

Emergency assistance

With the appearance of impairment, especially after consumption of food or other products need to urgently call an ambulance, since botulism can result in rapid buildup of symptoms with sudden deterioration and death of the patient on the first day of the disease. If the suspect product was used by others, you should find out whether they have any symptoms of the disease.

Recovery of patients with botulism, even if timely treatment for medical assistance (when the first signs of the disease) and early treatment, is slow. Some manifestations of the illness can persist for up to several months.

Clinical Examination. In the absence of complications botulism patients after hospital discharge are observed for 14 days. In the case of residual effects of the nervous system, development in the acute phase of myocarditis the medical monitoring of such patients is life before recovery (2 times per year).

Prevention of botulism

Checking canned before consumption, taking “bombazhnyh” cans. Heating to 100C for 30 min, prepared at home in jars of canned vegetables and mushrooms, before use, to destroy botulinum toxin.

Products that caused the contamination, after sampling for laboratory study, shall be withdrawn and destroyed. Linen contaminated secretions of the patient, and tableware, which were used by the infected products are subjected to disinfection.

Individuals who consumed the caused the disease product, is administered protivopodagricescuu serum. For them, established under medical surveillance for 10 days.