Antibacterial agent (antibiotic) — a substance of animal, microbial, vegetable or synthetic origin, which can suppress the occurrence and growth of microorganisms of a certain type, and cause their death.
The antibiotics have a natural origin, often produced by in the life of actinomycetes, rarely bacteria nematerialne. Some antibiotics have directional effects on the growth and reproduction of bacteria and cause minor damage or does not act on the cells of the organism, therefore they are effectively used to create medicines. Some types of antibiotics commonly used for antineoplastic (cytotoxic) drugs aimed at treating cancer.
Drugs that have a synthetic origin and have no natural analogues often have similar antibiotic inhibitory effect on the reproduction and growth of bacteria. Traditionally, such agents are not called antibiotics, they are called antibacterial chemotherapy. The first known antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents were sulfonamides, so it was customary to speak collectively about the entire class of antibiotics as the antibiotics and sulfonamides”.
But in the last ten years created a lot of strong antibacterial chemotherapy. Those in particular are fluoroquinolones, approaching or exceeding the activity of standard antibiotics. With the emergence of new groups the concept of “antibiotics” significantly blurred and expanded. Now the term is used in relation to the funds of natural and semi-synthetic compounds as well as strong antibacterial chemotherapy drugs.
It is worth mentioning that antibiotics have no effect on viral infections, so it is not feasible to use them in the treatment of diseases caused by viruses (e.g., hepatitis, of various kinds, flu, herpes, measles, varicella, rubella).
The history of the invention of antibiotics
Forgetfulness is one of Scottish microbiologists has resulted in the emergence of interesting and useful discoveries. In 1929, scientist Alexander Fleming was unsuccessfully working on the staphylococci. The researcher looked for ways to destroy the infection caused by a horrible bacteria. In a small laboratory all happened quite by accident. Mold spores got into the tube with germs.
Forgetting to wash a Cup, a scientist discovered a few days on her day during the entire breeding mold. From germs are gone. Disputes are not only adapted to the environment, but were able to destroy harmful microorganisms. After more than a dozen similar experiments with staphylococci, Fleming and failed to convince the scientific world of the huge potential of his teachings.
The forefather of modern antibiotics was an Englishman and creative researcher – biochemist Ernst chain. Because of his merits penicillin was able to extract in its pure form and start the production of medicines based on it. Already in ‘ 40 he was able to actively use for treatment, but in industrial scale it appeared only after the Second world war.
Since the creation of the first antibiotic there have been many changes and modern scientists today have learned to produce about 30 such groups of funds. Each of which has spectrum of action, efficacy and safety. Consider in more detail what groups can be divided broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Mechanisms and Classification of Antibiotics
Group of broad-spectrum antibiotics
Antibiotics are unique because they are widely used for the treatment of many diseases. Despite the fact that they are drugs with broad spectrum of action, they are divided into groups depending on the current fundamentals. We offer you the basic of them with the most popular representatives:
To penicillin group comprises preparations, which are United by the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. Natural source is fungi of Penicillium, the most active of these is the penicillin. It is actively used since the late 40-ies of the 20th century. The basis of all members of this group serve 6-aminopenicillanic acid (abbreviated as 6-AIC), which consists of tiazolidinovogo ring and β-lactam. Different antibiotics of this group in name only radical.
All penicillins are divided into several prop:
- penicillin natural origin – the active substance (benzylpenicillin or phenoxymethylpenicillin) is synthesized by fungi. These antibiotics have a narrow spectrum of action (used against pyogenic cocci and some gram-positive bacteria). β-lactam of these microorganisms are not protected from the destructive action of penicillinase (the enzyme that synthesizes Staphylococcus).
- Semi-synthetic penicillins are resistant to penicillinase. They are used to combat a wide range of microorganisms (destroy the staphylococci, cocci, gram-positive and -negative bacteria). The most outstanding representatives is considered to be oxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin.
- Carboxypenicillins the most popular are tikarcillina and carbenicillin.
- Penicillin with a broad antibacterial action. These are ureidopenicillin ( mezlocillin, azlocillin) and amidinoproline (musillami).
The main advantage of all penitsillinov – bactericidal effect, which prevents the synthesis of peptidoglycan. This enzyme is an essential component of cell stancak bacteria, and its inhibition leads to the death of the bacteria.
Many microorganisms acquire resistance to antibiotics, to overcome this ability, which is associated with reproduction custom components — β-lactamase, scientists have developed special protected penicillins. These include antibacterial compounds which can stop the activity of β-lactamase (also known as inhibitors of β-lactamase) — namely clavulanic acid, tazobactam and sulbactam. In addition to the use of these components there is another method of overcoming the stability — change components penitsillinazoobrazuyuschih amino acids.
Group penicillin act on the peptidoglycan, and penicillinosis protein molecules do not exist in mammals, antibiotics of this series do not have serious side effects. The complexity of the application can only be associated with allergic reactions. Some patients in the application of penicillinase drugs can appear skin rash, laryngeal edema, which are accompanied by increase in temperature.
To cephalosporins are β-lactam antibiotics are based on the chemical structure of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACC). They differ by the fact that cephalosporins are more resistant towards β-lactamase enzymes that are produced by microorganisms. Scientists wanted to improve the stability and broaden the spectrum of action of cephalosporins and improved pharmacokinetic parameters using drug synthesis and semi-synthetic derivatives. Created a combination of drugs that contain cephalosporins, which are skillfully combined with the inhibitors of destructive enzymes. It is worth noting that the action of cephalosporins can cause allergic reaction in sensitive patients. There are several generations of antimicrobials in this group:
- First Generation: cephalexin, cefadroxil;
- Second Generation: cefaclor, cefuroxime, cefuroxime has axetil;
- Third Generation: Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone, ceftibuten, ceftazidime, cefoperazone, cefixime;
- Fourth Generation: cefepime.
According to scientists with each successive generation properties of the drugs in this group improved. But they all are effectively used in the following cases acute diseases: respiratory, gonorrhea, pyelonephritis, severe ENT infections, and prevent complications before the introduction of extensive surgical operations.
Medications belonging to this group are the least toxic and allergic. They are widely used in relation to atypical flora, gram-negative and -positive bacteria. The mechanism of action of macrolides is penetration of substances into the cell of the microbe, and the manifestation of a bacteriostatic effect. In other words by the use of antibiotics in this group are aimed at preventing the division and growth of pathogenic cells. Macrolides — the most modern group of antibacterial agents with broad spectrum of action and therefore their properties are only updated, but also have improved pharmacological properties. In other words, once in the blood, the active ingredient azithromycin in maximum amount and in the shortest time concentrated in the localization of foci of infection.
Doctors prescribe the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in diseases such as: inflammation of the lymph nodes, middle ear and paranasal sinuses, tonsils, lungs and bronchi, as well as infections of the pelvic organs. Experts identify several groups, in particular, is azithromycin the original, branded.
Tetracyclines are a group of antibiotics that belong to the class of polyketides. They are similar in chemical components and biological properties. Like previous groups, the tetracyclines are also characterised by a common spectrum of activity and mechanism of antimicrobial effect. This family is characterized by full cross-immunity. The main differences between the members of the group are in the physico-chemical properties, antibacterial effect, suction speed, ability distribution, tolerability and metabolism in the macroorganism.
Tetracyclines are characterized by bacteriostatic properties, so they are widely prescribed by physicians for treatment of such diseases as syphilis, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis.
Antibiotics of this group are organic substances United by chemical structure. Important component is a molecule of the amino sugar, which is connected to aminosilicones ring with a glycosidic bond. The main clinical effect of aminoglycosides have against aerobic (aerobic organisms) gram-negative bacteria.
Another very important property of the family of aminoglycosid – bactericidal. Antibiotics destroy directly sensitive to their exposure to micro-organisms (unlike antibiotics bacteriostatic groups that focused on the inhibition of reproduction of microorganisms, and kill them should be self-immunity of host organism). Aminoglycosides act quickly and effectively for most severe infections, provided that they are sensitive to microorganisms. Their clinical effect is practically independent of the immune system of the patient. That is why the aminoglycosides are among the drugs that doctors choose for severe infections, developing with depressed immunity.
Aminoglycosides bactericidal effect on all microscopic organisms, regardless of the phase of reproduction, destroy even those that are in the resting phase. This is the main difference between the aminoglycoside after all beta-lactam antibiotics are bactericidal only on proliferating bacteria. This explains the fact that their therapeutic effectiveness is not reduced when administered in conjunction with existing bacteriostatic antibiotics.
An important feature is that the effective action of aminoglycosides requires the presence of aerobic conditions. It is the environment, not only within the bacterial target cells, but also in the tissues of the infectious focus. According to experts antibiotics of this group is practically not effective in the little perfused, necrotic (dead), hypoxemic tissues. It is impractical to apply them in areas of the abscesses and cavities since antibacterial medications do not act on anaerobic micro-organisms.
Aminoglycosides are successfully used to treat boils and urinary tract. Choose antibiotics to destroy the infection in acute bacterial diseases of the kidneys and inflammation of the inner ear, bacterial endocarditis, sepsis, severe pneumonia.
To this group as well as the previous 5, are broad-spectrum antibiotics. They are characterized by a strong bactericidal effect. Substances getting inside the cell of the microbe, the pathogen, kill them. Detrimental effect on atypical flora, gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. A feature of these medicines is the fact that fluoroquinolones are not generally assign pregnant women and children. The mechanism of action is the inhibition of two vital enzymes of the microbial cell (DNA-gyrase and topoisomerase-4). Antibiotics destroy the DNA synthesis, thereby causing the death of bacteria. It is worth noting that the activity also aims to RNA of the bacteria, the impact on the stability of the membranes and affecting other vital processes of bacterial cells.
Active ingredients: nalidixic and oxolinic acid are active against most gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli, cholera Vibrio, Shigella, Salmonella, meningococcus, gonococci). Detrimental impact they have and to Campylobacter, Legionella, chlamydia, Mycoplasma. The antibiotics killed some gram-positive bacteria: some species of pneumococci and many strains of staphylococci, anaerobic bacteria. Some fluoroquinolones are effective against mycobacteria tuberculosis.
High destructive ability allows fluoroquinolones to develop a medication applied topically in the form of drops for eyes and ears. The use of antibiotics in this group is accompanied by side effects. Particularly there is a negative impact on the musculoskeletal functions of the camera, which is accompanied by rupture of tendons, atropia, tendonitis. The most popular representatives of this group are moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin.
Due to their pharmacological properties they are widely used in pharyngitis, pneumonia, sinusitis and other respiratory diseases. They are also effective against urogenital infectious diseases.
Antibiotic – How to Use
“Antibiotics” is called medicines that can be natural or artificial. As the name suggests, it can be assumed that the main purpose of these medications – the destruction or inhibition of growth of bacteria, fungi. A special feature of their application is aimed effective impact on bacteria, not viruses.
Treatment with antibacterial agents may be effective only under certain rules:
- When the first symptoms of the disease should consult a specialist, because the correct diagnosis may put only a competent doctor;
- You must use assigned, effective in this disease drugs;
- You cannot miss any doses of medication, be sure to complete the entire course of treatment. It is not necessary to finish the treatment, if you feel the first signs of improvement. The more modern antibiotics have a short three-day course of treatment with taking only once a day;
- Self-medication can be life threatening, so do not copy medical purpose, to make a reception of antibacterial drugs with similar (according to patient) testimony. Symptoms of diseases can be similar, and the correct diagnosis can be established only by a competent professional.
- It is Dangerous to use medication that was not assigned to you. Such treatment significantly complicates diagnosis, and delaying the start of adequate treatment often cause side (unwanted) effects;
- Special attention need to be parents, we should not insist in communicating with the doctor on the prescription of antibiotics to children. Child in any case should not give them without a prescription.
Antibiotics are not effective if:
Antibacterial agents used in diseases caused by bacterial sticks, therefore they are not administered in some cases:
- Acute viral diseases, flu and colds agents which are viruses. Drugs against bacteria will not cause relief, will not be able to protect against outbreaks in your environment;
- Antibiotics do not relieve pain and temperature (fever), because they are not analgesic and antipyretic agents, they only fight with their causative agents;
- They also will not remove the inflammatory process, as it is not associated with bacterial infection;
- Urge to cough can be caused by many reasons—a virus, allergic reaction, asthma, excessive sensitivity of the bronchi to pathogens in the external environment and other Cases where help antibiotics rare and may determine their only doctor.
- Antibacterial drugs will not help to cure the disease, which was caused by a virus.
- It Should be noted that even “viral” colds can be complicated and even triggered by a bacterial infection. Only under this option, required repeated medical advice and possible appointment of antibacterial therapy and the use of suitable antibiotics.
The Danger of antibiotics for health
- Do Not begin taking antibiotics without a prescription
Only a qualified specialist can determine the dose and time course of antibacterial agents. Even “tested” antibacterial agents incorrect use can adversely affect the health of the patient, causing severe side effects. During long-term course of the disease, which is accompanied by continued administration of antibacterial agents, the potential failure of the internal systems. Such effects often occur because of careless or incorrect use of medicines.
- You cannot stop taking antibiotics alone
Antibacterial agents should always drink course. If you do not follow the recommendations of your doctor, you can cause serious complications. The disease can become chronic.
- You must Not use antibiotics too often
Frequent use of antibacterial products leads to the fact that the bacteria produce their own protection and be resistant to their influence. Mutation of pathogens can cause acute form of the disease, which is not only difficult to diagnose but also to finally heal.
- It is Impossible to cure all diseases with antibiotics
Do not make the mistake with antibiotics is not to bring down the heat or remove the pain. Antibiotics are not antipyretic analgesics. Not effective, they are also diseases caused by infections of viral nature.
- You cannot hide from the doctor information
When assisting the doctor needs to know such important information as the presence of chronic diseases or sensitivity to medications, allergies, breast-feeding or pregnancy. These factors significantly affect the course of treatment and individual selection of antibiotics. At this stage the important point is the combination of antibiotics with other drugs. Be sure to tell your doctor about you are taking hormones, pills or vitamins.
- You can’t mix drugs with alcohol
About the dangers of excessive alcohol consumption said a lot, but that particular caution should be observed when taking antibiotics. The combination of these two components together may lead not only to increased toxicity in the body, but to death. In addition there are some products of the use of which is to abstain. If you don’t know what kind of diet should be followed while taking antibiotics should talk about this with your doctor. Otherwise, the recovery may be delayed, since antibiotic will not work.
- Not delay
Antibiotic in most cases cope with pathogens during the first 3-4 days if you do not feel significant relief after this deadline, do not waste time. You should consult a doctor because the antibiotics did not help, again it is necessary to prescribe the drug, which will be more effective.
Broad-spectrum Antibiotics and Children
In complex diseases doctors in most cases, using antibiotics to treat children. Quite often their use is resorted to when the final cause of the exact cause of the disease and correct diagnosis is not made. In such circumstances, broad spectrum antibiotics can suppress the infection in the hearth of its origin. It should be noted that abuse is not recommended, potent medications with frequent use can cause addiction. In addition, in any case without a pediatrician can not arbitrarily choose an antibiotic for the baby. Even the best drugs can have irreversible consequences on the child’s body.
It should also be noted that a strong antibiotic will destroy not only the main causative agent of the disease, but living next to the “peace” of intestinal microorganisms. Such actions can cause the baby has a goiter. Antibiotics narrow spectrum in turn for the kids is more preferable, but much less bring effect. Appointing them, the specialist can make a mistake, and a state of the time only worsen.
Today in pharmacies the huge variety of available medicines. However, the availability of antibiotics does not mean you can self-assign to their own treatment. The uncontrolled administration of drugs may harm your organs and the organism as a whole.
Side effects of antibiotics
Antibiotics are highly active drugs, so their choice should be treated very carefully. Additionally, if you use them often there are side effects. Possible negative effects have each medicine.. doctor prescribing a particular drug does not exclude the possibility of occurrence of an Allergy, individual intolerance of active influence on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, blood and many other organs and even systems. However, the effect of antibiotics is recognized more serious.
In addition serious or fatal cases drug side effects almost never occur in medical practice. When vozniknovenii negative effects and significant deterioration of health only competent doctor is able to solve the issue change or continuation of antibacterial therapy. Removal of the drug or the appointment of additional treatment possible when necessary.
The broad-spectrum antibiotics in pregnancy
Every expectant mother knows that the use of drugs during pregnancy is very dangerous. This also applies to antibacterial drugs. Impressionable women are frightened of even mentioning the drugs what strength. However, considerable difficulty begins when a woman needs treatment, and the impact of antibiotics.
While carrying a child very often, chronic disease is apparent. In addition, pregnant becomes quite vulnerable and there is a risk to buy a new sores. In these cases, a competent diagnosis of the right to supply only a competent specialist. Also, it can make the appropriate antibiotics.
Unique factors that lead to antibiotics include:
- Acute inflammation of the organs of the excretory system, in particular pyelonephritis;
- STI (detection of sexually transmitted infections);
- Serious illness of various kinds (pneumonia and many others)
If you told the doctor about their health problems, and he prescribed you antibiotics, you should follow some rules. First of all, it is impossible to independently change the timing and dosage of the drug. It is imperative to tell your doctor about changes in your health and if you experience any discomfort you should immediately stop taking the drug.