Brucellosis — an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella; it is transmitted to humans from domestic animals. Brucellosis in humans is also called undulipodia (undulating) fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, Bang’s disease.
Causative agent of brucellosis
Most often the causative agents of brucellosis in humans are three types of microorganisms: Brucella abortus cows, B. melitensis of sheep and goats and B. suis pigs. Infections caused by B. abortus, usually occur in a milder form. Human infection with brucellosis is through meat or dairy products from infected animals and through direct contact with them.
Symptoms of brucellosis
The incubation period usually lasts from five days to three weeks, but sometimes stretch up to nine months. The most common symptoms are chills and fever, excessive night sweats, different pains and General weakness. About half of patients with enlarged lymph nodes and spleen. In Malta fever, which local residents become infected from goats, there is the typical wave-like change of body temperature during the day: 40° night back to normal in the morning.
Bruselles can cause serious complications. Damage to the nervous system sometimes accompanied by the development of symptoms of encephalitis or meningitis. Often there are arthritis, neuritis and endocarditis. After the acute period of the disease sometimes becomes protracted, chronic, and these patients may develop psychoneurotic symptoms.
Specific serological tests allow for early and reliable diagnosis of brucellosis.
Treatment and prevention of brucellosis
At the present time for the treatment of acute and chronic forms of brucellosis are using tetracycline antibiotics. To combat brucellosis immunization ineffective. The most effective measures to prevent infection among people include the eradication of brucellosis in farm animals. Cattle were vaccinated, and vaccination of goats and pigs have been ineffective, so infected animals are usually slaughtered.