Bubonic plague is an acute infectious disease that is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Symptoms of plague include fever, defeat lymph nodes, lungs and other internal organs. The disease is often accompanied by sepsis. Without treatment the plague in 95-99% percent fatal. In the history of mankind repeatedly occurred the plague, which carried off millions of lives. Currently through the use of antibiotics, mortality due to plague is 5-10%.
According to the world health organization every year the world gets sick of 1-3 thousand people. The plague occurs mainly in some countries of Asia (Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and Vietnam), Africa (Tanzania and Madagascar), the Americas (USA, Peru). Despite its low incidence, plague remains under steadfast attention of scientists, because the plague Bacillus could be used as biological weapons. The inhalation of the air in which bacterium is sprayed in aerosol form, can lead to infection of a large number of people.
A natural source of bubonic plague is wild and domestic rodents (rats and mice). The carrier of the plague Bacillus are fleas. Infection occurs when a person is bitten by a flea that previously biting a sick animal. The incubation period of the disease is from several hours to 6 days. As a result of the flea bite occurs bubonic form of plague. the Bubonic plague is a painful, enlarged and fused into a single whole lymph nodes that appear as growths on the skin. The buboes most frequently appear in the groin. With the course of the disease, they soften, burst and heal slowly.
If the infection spreads to the lungs, bubonic plague can go into extremely dangerous pneumonic form. The condition of the patient deteriorates, a cough with frothy bloody sputum. Pneumonic plague is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. This results in primary pneumonic plague, which is not accompanied by the development of buboes.