Oncology

Cancer prevention


Cancer prevention

To protect yourself from cancer one hundred percent impossible. However, there are several ways to reduce the likelihood of developing some types of cancer. Here are the main rules of prevention of cancer.

Don’t smoke tobacco

Nicotine itself is not carcinogenic substance (this role is played by 70 other smoke constituents), so to quit Smoking using the nicotine patch, inhaler or gum, and medications varenicline and bupropion. Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer 10-20 times, it contributes to the development of leukemia, cancer of the oral and nasal cavities, pancreas, liver, stomach, cervix, kidney, colon and bladder. Even if you smoke for a very long time, it is better to drop the risk of developing cancer if not sharply, but reduced.

Chewing tobacco increases the risk of developing cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas.

Not sunbathing and Solarium

Cancer PreventionUV radiation leads to genetic mutations and affects the immune system, suppressing its ability to deal with new cancer cells. Therefore, in some countries, the Solarium is prohibited in General, somewhere it is not allowed to visit the minor people. Solarium 75 percent increased risk of melanoma among people using it up to 35. Dangerous UVA radiation and UVB radiation. The risk of developing melanoma, the most aggressive skin cancer, is rising from severe burns, the development of other cancers of the skin promotes regular UV exposure.
Researchers and doctors are encouraged to consider the sun the direct cause of skin cancer . It is not necessary to be in the sun in the summer (especially with 10 to 15 hours), you need to wear a hat, sunglasses, use sunscreen, wear clothing that minimizes skin exposure, choose bright or dark colors: they reflect more UV radiation.

These recommendations should not be neglected everyone, but especially people with light skin, lots of moles and skin cancers in the family — they are in the highest risk group.

Alcohol

Although alcohol in moderate doses reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer development it promotes. This is particularly true of cancer of the colon, breast, esophagus, liver and mouth cancer. Excess alcohol consumption increases the risks. The norm is 30 ml ethanol per day for men, 15 ml for women and those over 65 years. 4.

Overweight and obesity

In people with obesity more likely to develop breast cancer (in postmenopausal women), prostate, lung, colon, pancreas, endometrium, esophagus and kidney. Bariatric surgery (operation to reduce stomach, after which a person loses weight drastically) reduce deaths from cancer by 60 percent.

A recently published study of British cancer research centre Cancer Research UK showed the relationship of obesity and risk of cancer in women. Obese women have a 40% higher risk of developing certain forms of cancer.

Physical activity

Physical activity in itself may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (colon cancer) and cancer of the breast and endometrium in postmenopausal women. Studies show that a sedentary lifestyle is associated with 5 percent of cancer deaths. Physical activity helps to prevent cancer through reduction of excess weight. A sufficient load is considered 150 minutes of moderate activity per week or 75 minutes of more intense training.

Viral diseases

Approximately 17% of all new cancer cases are triggered by infectious diseases: viruses can badly affect the functioning of cells. In short, the main ways to protect themselves from such infections is to use condoms, to be vaccinated against human papillomavirus and hepatitis B, do not use used syringes.

Without human papilloma virus is no case of cervical cancer. HPV also contributes to the development of cancer of penis, throat, vulva, vagina, and anal canal. But oncogenic (cause cancer) types of the virus are only some— 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and several others. HPV is transmitted sexually, but a condom in this case is not the most reliable protection. Most effective from oncogenic types of virus vaccines protect. They can make the girls and young men from 9 to 26, preferably before sexual debut.

Hepatitis B and C induce the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (liver cancer). These viruses are transmitted sexually, through blood transfusion, organ transplant, use of contaminated syringes. How can you protect yourself from these risks? To use a condom, with injecting drug use syringe once, to be vaccinated against hepatitis B vaccinated against hepatitis C is not yet created). In chronic hepatitis B cancer risk is reduced if treated with interferon or analogues of nucleosides/nucleotides. If you have chronic hepatitis B or C, alcohol is better not to use, as it only helps the development of cancer.

Viral disease and cancer preventionT-lymphotropic virus human contributes to the development of T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in adults. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, etc. to Protect you from being infected in both cases, using condoms and once using syringes. HIV helps to reduce the risks of antiretroviral therapy.

The herpes virus of the 8th type as a risk factor for development of Kaposi’s sarcoma and primary exudative lymphoma. Its transmission path is not precisely determined, but it is assumed that this occurs during intercourse and/or through saliva. Epstein — Barr, which increases the risk of developing Burkitt’s lymphoma, is also transmitted through saliva during unprotected sexual intercourse.

Medication and Drugs for cancer prevention

People with increased risk of developing certain types of cancer are advised to take drugs that improve the prognosis.

If there is a mutation in the genes BRCA1/BRCA2, then a woman is likely to develop breast cancer or ovarian cancer. She has two ways of prevention: medication and operation. The doctor may recommend taking tamoxifen. However, in postmenopausal women this drug increases the risk of thromboembolism (blockage of an artery by a blood clot and endometrial cancer. Raloxifene may be an alternative for postmenopausal women as it has fewer side effects, although having a weaker action (its impact on women in the period prior to menopause has not been investigated). Aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole) also reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, have few serious side effects, but cause pain in muscles and joints. Recommend them primarily to postmenopausal women.

As a prevention, in the U.S. and Europe also removed the mammary glands and ovaries.

For the prevention of prostate cancer (PCA) recommended drugs no. But there are medicines finasteride and dutasteride, they do reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. However, in cases when a person gets sick, the cancer is more aggressive, and eventually in General mortality is the same as without the use of these drugs.

Aspirin (at least 75 mg per day) and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent proven to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. However, prolonged use of the drug makes it more likely of gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhagic stroke. Therefore, to assign such prevention can only be a doctor, assessing all the risks.

The results of recent scientific papers indicate that statins significantly reduce mortality from cancer and probably reduces the incidence of cancer. These drugs are prescribed to people who have high cholesterol and potentially serious problems with the cardiovascular system. Metformin, which is prescribed to people with prediabetes or diabetes, to reduce insulin levels, also, apparently, prevents cancer.

Vitamins

Multivitamin complexes in numerous studies showed its effectiveness in the prevention of cancer. However, it is known that when a sufficient amount of vitamin D in the body lower the risk of cancer of the colon. So does calcium — at least 700 mg per day (more than 2000 mg increase the risk of developing prostate cancer) — as well as folate. Folates and even reduce the risk of developing breast cancer, especially in women who consume alcohol.

Other vitamins and minerals were either not tested or showed in studies of conflicting results or were ineffective in the prevention of cancer.

Useful vitamins in the treatment of cancer? Set even that taking beta-carotene increases smokers risk of developing lung cancer, and vitamin E used separately, contributes to prostate cancer, and the effect persists even after discontinuation of this drug. Currently, much more research talking about the dangers of taking vitamins in the treatment of cancer.

Diet to prevent cancer

As for the food, at the moment we have not very much convincing evidence that the food can significantly affect the risk of cancer. There are only a few products that failed to associate with a particular cancer. For example, if you regularly eat red meat, the greater the risk of cancer of the colon. In 50-71 year and the mortality rate from this disease, if not to change a diet. But eating fish containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces the risk of developing colon cancer (isolated intake of this substance to such an effect does not).

Probably, those men who eat tomatoes less often prostate cancer occurs because of the action of a substance lycopene. Apparently, dairy products with low fat content, calcium (from food) and vitamin D (not from dairy products) help women who are not in menopause, protect yourself from breast cancer. Calcium and dairy products in the diet of both men and women reduce the risk of cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

Data on the influence of fat, fruit, vegetables on the incidence of cancer is extremely controversial.

Video: Cancer Prevention and Nutrition