Chickenpox is a contagious infectious disease in childhood takes place in a simple way; in infants, adults and people with weakened immune systems, the disease can take much more severe. Chickenpox is usually transmitted by airborne droplets. After contact with a sick person may take from 10 to 21 days before symptoms occur. A person can infect others without even knowing that he was sick. Infectious period begins a few days before the appearance of the characteristic rash on the skin and lasts as long until no new blisters stop appearing, old and crusted.
Chicken Pox Symptoms
Symptoms of chickenpox begin to appear with shivering, fever, abdominal pain, headache and a General state of malaise. A couple of days before this body rash may appear. The heat may be stronger in the first days after onset of rash (small, itchy, red spots on the face, head, shoulders, chest and back). The rash may also appear in the mouth, on the eyelids and in the genital area. While one patient may be only a few blisters, and the other all of them will be covered. At first it red markings with pale blisters. They quickly disappear and are tightened with a crust, which, in turn, dies within 2 weeks. In the first 4-5 days continue to emerge boils and blisters, so can occur simultaneously all stages of skin rashes.
Complications of varicella
Generally, a person is sick with chicken pox once in a lifetime. However, the immune system is populated with the virus does not manifest itself, and then be activated again in adulthood, causing a rash. This rash called herpes zoster, or shingles.
Chickenpox can leave on the skin pockmarks, especially in adolescents. Temporary marks may remain visible from 6 months to a year.
If a pregnant woman gets sick with chicken pox a few days before delivery, the newborn may get severe form of the disease.
Chickenpox can lead to serious secondary bacterial infections, viral pneumonia (lung infection caused by certain viruses and accompanied by symptoms of fever, cough and shortness of breath); encephalitis. Encephalitis – a viral disease of the brain; it is a very rare complication of chickenpox. However, it is important to know the symptoms: fever, confusion, unconsciousness, fatigue and sudden severe pain that radiates to the extremities (lumbago).
When identifying similar symptoms should be taken immediately to the patient to the doctor.
Should immediately consult a physician. With severe General condition and severe skin manifestations may require hospitalization, especially when symptoms from the nervous system (pain that radiates to the legs, severe headache) or if the patient becomes hard to breathe. Drink plenty of cool liquids. Paracetamol will help reduce the fever.
Do not use acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). For ulcers in the mouth stick to a sparing diet. Avoid eating salty foods and citrus fruits and juices.
For painful and itchy rash in the vulva you can use drugs for topical application with analgesic effect. When you select it is best to consult with your doctor or pharmacist.
When the signs of the formation of an abscess at the site of the rash you can use antibacterial ointment.
You must re-turn to the doctor if the temperature is above 38 degrees lasts more than 4 days.
Children do not have to stay in bed, but you need to be in a state of rest.
When the body temperature is reduced, and pockmarks crusted, the child can walk. A visit to the school, kindergarten or kindergarten is a doctor.
Attempt to tear off the peel with healing pocks may lead to re-infection and further itching. It is recommended to briefly trim your nails and wash hands frequently to prevent infection, at night wear cotton gloves to reduce the chance to tear pockmarks during sleep.
Clinical treatment of smallpox
The doctor will prescribe antiviral medication to an adult patient (children, as a rule, just need to rest and quiet). For more effective treatment should be initiated as early as possible, as soon as the rash appears (at least within 24-48 hours). When re-infection the doctor will prescribe antibiotics and early detect complications.
Prevention of chickenpox
If you have a high risk of getting chickenpox, contact your doctor. Prescribed medication or vaccination can prevent infection. Avoid contact with other people during the infectious period (until all pockmarks will not last crust).
If people were exposed to the probability of infection upon contact with you, encourage them to observe the possible appearance of a skin rash within 2 weeks from the moment of contact. It is almost impossible to prevent the spread of the disease in one family. Studies show that 9 times out of 10 if your spouse also infected gets sick.
Vaccination against chickenpox is recommended for children after one year.
Be sure to consult your doctor if you have had contact with sick and you have not had chicken pox in childhood, particularly at lower immunity, pregnancy or if you had surgery for bone marrow transplantation.