Cholera — an acute infectious disease. Characterized by thin defeat bowel, a violation of water-salt metabolism, varying degrees dehydration because of fluid loss with watery feces and vomit. Cholera refers to the quarantine infections. Prevention of cholera is based on compliance with hygiene standards. Pathogen — Vibrio cholerae in the form of curved rods (comma). When boiling dies after 1 minute. Some biotypes long persist and multiply in water, in mud, in organisms inhabitants of reservoirs. The source of infection is a person (patient and the bacilli carrier). Vibrios excreted in faeces, vomit. Epidemics of cholera are water, food, household contact and mixed. Susceptibility to disease is high.
Symptoms and treatment of cholera
Symptoms and course of cholera very diverse — from asymptomatic carriage to severe condition with sharp dehydration and fatal.
Incubation period of cholera lasts 1-6 days. If the patient is cholera, the symptoms develop rapidly. Acute onset of the disease. The first manifestations include diarrhea suddenly appeared, mostly in night or early morning hours. The stools at first watery, later becoming kind of “rice broth” odourless, it is possible impurity of blood. Then joins profuse vomiting, which appears suddenly, often erupting fountain. Diarrhea and vomiting as rule, not accompanied by abdominal pain.
In a large loss of fluid symptoms defeat gastrointestinal retreat to second place. Become the leading violation of major systems of the organism that causes cholera. Their severity depends on the degree of dehydration:
- grade I: dehydration expressed slightly
- grade II: a decrease in body weight by 4-6%, reducing the number of erythrocytes and falling levels of hemoglobin, ESR acceleration. Patients complain sharp weakness, dizziness, dry mouth, thirst. Lips and fingers turn blue, there is hoarseness of voice, possible spasmodic twitching ikronozhnyh muscles, fingers, chewing muscles;
- third degree: loss of body mass 7-9%, with all of the symptoms of dehydration worse. In the fall of blood pressure can collapse, the body temperature drops to 35,5-36S, can really stop the flow of urine. Blood from dehydration thicken, decreasing the concentration of potassium and chlorine;
- fourth degree: fluid loss is more than 10% of body weight. Sharpen facial features appear “dark glasses” around the eyes. The skin is cold, clammy to the touch, bluish, frequent prolonged tonic convulsions. Patients in a state of prostration, develops shock. The sharply heart tones are muffled, blood pressure drops sharply. The temperature is reduced to 34.5 C. This deadly cholera. The symptoms often lead to fatal outcomes.
Cholera causes the following complications: pneumonia, abscesses, cellulitis, erysipelas, phlebitis.
Recognition of cholera. Characteristic epidemiological anamnesis, the signs of cholera. Bacteriological examination of faeces, vomit, gastric contents, laboratory of physical-chemical blood tests, serological reaction.
Treatment of cholera
Treatment of cholera. Hospitalization of patients. Played a leading role against dehydration and recovery of water-salt balance. Recommended solutions containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, bicarbonate sodium, glucose. When severe dehydration — inkjet introduction to fluid normalization pulse, after which the solution continues to enter drip. In the diet of patients undergoing treatment of cholera should be included products containing large amounts of salt potassium (dried apricots, tomatoes, potatoes). Antibiotic treatment is carried out only in patients in whom cholera was caused by III-IV degree of dehydration, are used tetracycline or chloramphenicol in the mean daily dosages. Discharge from hospital after complete recovery if there is negative bacteriological analyses of the study. If the cholera treatment is timely and adequately, the prognosis is favorable.
Prevention of cholera. the Protection and disinfection of drinking water. Active surveillance doctor persons who were in contact with sick within 5 days. If you need specific prevention of cholera, according to the testimony applies corpuscular cholera vaccine and choleragen-toxoid.