Dermatitis is any inflammation of the skin caused by exposure to external stimuli. Immediately it should be noted a little confusion in terminology. Dermatitis is often referred to as inflammation in the skin resulting from the effects of any factor, both external and internal. Therefore, any dermatitis should be accompanied by a definition (atopic, seborrheic). In this article we will only discuss dermatitis arising from exposure to environmental factors.
Causes of dermatitis
Most frequently as physical factors is the mechanical irritation, such as skin friction or pressure on her, as well as exposure to sunlight, high and low temperatures, etc. Not less rarely dermatitis is caused by chemical agents with which a man meets in his daily life. This obligate stimuli that cause skin lesions in any person, and, optionally, cause dermatitis in individuals with hypersensitivity to a particular substance. Simply put this means of personal hygiene, and washing powders, and of course, a significant section of paintwork and oily substances that people face in everyday life and in the workplace.
The dermatitis caused by environmental factors must include: attrition, amosulalol, diaper rash, photodermatitis, radiation dermatitis, dermatitis from exposure to electric current, burns, chilblains, frostbite and allergic dermatitis.
Regardless of what factor caused the defeat of the skin, for all dermatitis typical corresponding signs: the shape of the lesion and the localization is clearly limited to the area on which he wrought, and a quick resolution of the lesion after removal of the stimulus.
Symptoms of dermatitis
Develop dermatitis is a natural passage of the three stages of its development. The acute phase is accompanied by the appearance of bubbles containing a liquid, of various sizes. In the absence of timely initiation of care occurs subacute stage, which promotes the formation of scales and crusts. And already in the chronic stage there is thickening of skin and redness develops an intense dark red color with violet hues.
To diagnose eczema, a study is needed of blood. The patient should undergo fasting CBC. Allergic dermatitis often marked increase in leukocyte cells called eosinophils. To prevent the accession of mycotic skin lesions is performed microscopic examination and culture of the affected skin flakes pathogenic fungi. In allergic dermatitis conduct various Allergy tests. Most often in this case indicative of skin samples. Often about allergic nature irritating factor is judged at a higher level of Ig E in the blood.
To evaluate the results of these surveys may need a specialist – a dermatologist or allergist. So when you are itching, blistering and reddening of the skin is necessary in the shortest possible time to consult a specialist or dermatologist for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Otherwise, you can promptly diagnose diseases that often have a similar picture with dermatitis. We are talking about erythroderma and drug reaction for which to apply emergency treatment measures.
Treatment of dermatitis
It is logical that the treatment of all dermatitis should start with elimination of the irritant factor. Outdoor therapy depends on the severity of the process and nature of the rash.
In acute processes, characterized by the presence of bubbles and erosive surfaces, use wet-drying bandages with decoctions of herbs or 3% aqueous boric acid solution ( 100 ml water 3 g of boric acid powder). There is a certain technique of carrying out these procedures. A decoction prepared according to the instructions listed on the box, cooled to room temperature. Gauze cloth, folded in 6-8 layers, moistened in broth, and pressed for 15 minutes is applied to the damaged portion of the skin. Thus the procedure is repeated within a half hour, followed by a break for 3 hours. During the day wet-drying bandages with decoctions of herbs should be repeated 2-3 times.
When joining a secondary infection which can be diagnosed by the presence of a characteristic honey-yellow crusts on the surface erosion and the appearance of a turbid content in the bubbles, the tires of these blisters should be opened and then applying bandages with antibiotic ointment, such as ointment “Levomekol” or 10% “Syntomycin emulsion”, 12 hours, 2 times a day.
In the treatment of itching of dermatitis must use desensitizing and anti-histamines, such as “loratadine”, “Aerius”, in standard therapeutic doses, as well as a 10% solution of calcium gluconate 10 ml intramuscular injection every other day, 5 times. It is recommended that at the time of treatment to use a hypoallergenic diet, with the exclusion from the diet of an obligate allergens (substances which when accumulation (accumulation) can cause a reaction in persons with allergies). These products include coffee, chocolate, citrus fruits, chicken, fish, eggs.
With redness and thickening of the skin emollients are applied, such as Elidel cream, 2 times a day. And moisturizer from numerous dermatological lines such as “Uriage”-“Xenos”, “Aven”-“Trickser”, up to 5-6 times a day, especially after contact with water.
Skin care is exposed to the irritant factor, should be very careful. When washing must be used in products that do not damage the hydro-lipid mantle of the skin. For this aptsloi network priobretayut special gels and Soaps from the “Bioderma and Uriage” : “Cu-Zn” or “H2O – Sensiba”.
Occasionally, especially in advanced cases of dermatitis, used hormonal cream. However, these funds should not be used by the patient independently, without physician supervision, because long-term use can cause atrophy (thinning) of the skin. And certainly not to use these tools on the face.
Corticosteroids can cause atrophy of the skin, especially on the face, and the use of local antibiotics is fraught with the formation of bacterial resistance and the development of allergies, so the treatment of dermatitis need to be conducted under the supervision of a physician with strict adherence to the dosage and course of treatment.
After the stabilization process, it is recommended that careful attitude to the skin: do not expose it to excessive UVR. This requires the use of special cosmetics with an SPF factor of over 50.
In the complex treatment of dermatitis possible external use of folk remedies. This has already been discussed above. Herbal teas are very good at relieving acute inflammation in the skin. However, we must understand that not all elements of the rash they may be used. To achieve the desired effect it is necessary to observe a certain mode of this procedure. You must remember that not all herbs can be used. Decoctions of some plants can exacerbate disease picture, triggering additional allergic skin reaction. In the treatment of dermatitis should be used the most hypoallergenic grass. This approach should primarily be used when caring for children, because more often than not known to the individual tolerance of a particular plant. For topical treatment of dermatitis, the most suitable are the following herbal ingredients: oak bark, succession, celandine, chamomile.
In cases of ulceration of the skin do not self medicate as it leads to necrotic lesions with subsequent scar formation. It is urgent to consult a specialist for appropriate treatment. Can additionally be assigned to agents that stimulate regenerative processes ( 10% methyluracyl ointment, ointment Vishnevsky, etc.)