Diathesis is popularly known as allergic rashes on the skin of the child. In medical classification of diseases such as skin Allergy does not exist, therefore we include in the category of diathesis symptoms. Actuallydiathesis – this infant stage of atopic dermatitis, so the treatment of diathesis in children should be taken very seriously in order to prevent the progression of the disease and its transition to the adult stage.
Most often the so-called diathesis occurs in children under one year and is an allergic reaction to food, who ate the kid (artificial infant formula, complementary foods), or his mother, if the child is breastfed.
Rash on baby’s skin, most often appears on the face, but can cover the whole body. In infants the rash can be a pimples on face in children of younger age – uniformly diffuse red rash, mainly on the face, with the accession of infection, the spots may coalesce, to fester and grow in size, formed wounds.
Treatment diathesis in children conducted by the General principles of treatment of atopic dermatitis, but it is necessary to observe a hypoallergenic diet. If the symptoms diathesis minor, can help eliminate the allergen from the diet of the child and compliance with hypoallergenic diet without treatment with medication.
But in any case of a child with a rash should see a doctor to exclude skin and infectious diseases the symptoms of which are similar to diathesis (chickenpox, rubella, measles, streptoderma)!
Allergic diathesis manifests itself in various forms for approximately 30–60% of children in the first 2 years of life. For 75–90% of these kids it is only an episode, and only a few can later develop allergic disease.
In children the first year of life reduced the protective function of the intestine. The fact that this age produced is still insufficient digestive enzymes, protective antibodies and increased permeability of the intestinal wall. The combination of these age peculiarities of the gastrointestinal tact toddlers causes nedorazumenie food components, primarily proteins, are easily absorbed into the blood stream. These large fragments of the molecules have pronounced antigenic properties, i.e., trigger a chain of allergic reactions. Any allergic reaction begins with the generation of specific antibodies belonging to the class of immunoglobulins E (IgE). Contact of the allergen with these antibodies leads to the release of histamine – a compound that causes vasodilatation, tissue edema, itching, etc. In children during the first years of life the release of histamine from blood cells can be caused not only by IgE antibodies but also by many other substances and even external factors (such as cooling).
In addition, the sensitivity of tissues of infants to histamine is significantly higher than in more adults, and inactivation (deactivation) of its markedly reduced. It may be clear why it is incorrect to put an equality sign between allergic diathesis and a typical allergic reaction: if the basis of Allergy is a perverse reaction of the immune system (production of antibodies against substances that are actually safe and normal should not stimulate an immune response ), while allergic diathesis major role in the development of allergic reactions play age peculiarities of the gastrointestinal tract and histamines sensitivity.
Symptoms typical of allergies and allergic diathesis may be similar, but they have different mechanism of development. Accordingly, different must be the approach to solving the problem. Only 1/3 of children with allergic diathesis is an increase in the level of IgE in the blood. That is why the existence of diathesis dependent on the dose of allergen received: comparatively large amount of food eaten leads to the development of skin reactions, among which the most frequently observed manifestations of atopic dermatitis. In some cases, trace amounts of the allergen can lead to severe allergic reactions.
The risk of developing atopic dermatitis increases with hereditary predisposition to allergic reactions, and also if the expectant mother eats a large number of allergens (such as citrus, strawberries, etc.), especially in the last trimester of pregnancy. The first AD promotes the consumption of cow’s milk proteins (typically administered mixtures), as well as eggs, citrus, strawberries, strawberry, oat and other cereals. It should be stressed that eggs, strawberries, strawberries, citrus, bananas, chocolate themselves cause histamine release, bypassing the stage of production of antibodies. If the baby is breastfed, the diathesis may occur as a consequence of the use nursing mother of these products.
The most frequent manifestations of atopic dermatitis are redness, dryness and peeling of the cheeks (the reddening may be reduced or cease completely when the outlet of the cold, and then resume). From an early age, such children may experience General dryness of the skin, long persistent intertrigo in skin folds, especially in the crotch area and buttocks. On the scalp in the parietal region is formed “milk crust”, or gneiss (flakes, which stick together by the sebum). Can develop various rashes, strophulus (itchy nodules filled with clear content), pockets soak. These children are also characterized by a “geographic” tongue (on the tongue there is a plaque, cut a variety of lines), prolonged conjunctivitis, rhinitis. SARS usually occurs with obstructive syndrome, or false croup, is observed anemia, unstable chair. Body weight often increases non-uniformly, may be redundant.
For wavy diathesis, acute often associated with dietetic error, but can be due to meteorological factors, and concomitant diseases, goiter, vaccinations. By the end of the second year of life, the existence of atopic dermatitis usually are mitigated and gradually disappear, but in 10–25% of children may develop allergic diseases: bronchial asthma, hay fever. That is why it is extremely important to help the little body to survive this period with minimal risk and to get out of this state. Failure prevention straining all systems, may contribute to the final failure of protection mechanisms that can result in serious disease (e.g., asthma or atopic dermatitis).
To what doctor to address when it detects diathesis in a child:
When the signs of diathesis in children should be his pediatrician, you may need the assistance of a pediatric dermatologist (to differentiate the diagnosis from other skin diseases) and the allergist.