None of us is immune from such injuries, as dislocation of the foot. It does not have to be a professional athlete, rather they stumble or fall down during the ice, or sharply uncomfortable to stand on the leg to wear high heels. Because everyone should know the first signs of this injury, not to miss the threat, and to master the skills of first aid to yourself or the people close to you.
What is dislocation of the foot
Dislocation of the foot – this is the collective term that encompasses several types of injuries of the lower limb. Leg bones are connected by 3 main joints, because localization distinguish sprains:
- of the foot or ankle (the most common type of household injury, lower limb);
- lower leg or knee (the injury is common, as in everyday life, and athletes);
- of the hip or hip joint (severe trauma, which usually occurs rarely, for example, road traffic accidents and similar accidents or in people with congenital malformations of the joint).
A dislocation is called the displacement of the articular surfaces of bones that form a joint, with a violation of congruence joint, with traumatic rupture of the joint capsule, intra-articular and extra-articular ligaments, which leads to disruption of the supporting and other functions of the limb. Consider a dislocated bone, which is located at a distance from the affected joint, for example, in violation of the congruence of the knee joint injury should be called the dislocation of the tibia, with damage in the ankle joint – the dislocation of the foot.
Depending on the degree of violation of the congruence of the articular ends of the bones distinguish full and partial dislocation. In the first case there is no contact between the articular surfaces of bones, which before the injury has formed a joint, in another case of partial contact between them still remains (even such an injury called a subluxation).
Why there is a dislocation
Causes of dislocation of the foot may be different, they can be divided into three groups:
- Traumatic dislocation develops when any kind of trauma – direct or indirect kick, stretching, twisting, sudden displacement of one section relative to the second leg, etc. Such injuries can happen in everyday life, in sports, at work, in case of accidents.
- Pathological dislocation injury of this type develops on the background of the primary disease, which has violated the joint structure and made it vulnerable to even minor external influences, for example, normal jump. It could be arthritis, arthrosis, neoplastic lesions, pathology of the ligaments of the joint, some congenital diseases.
- Congenital – this type of injury quite often occurs in the hip joint the child in the first months after birth. Can occur due to malposition of the fetus in the womb, birth trauma or congenital malformations of the musculoskeletal system.
As can be seen, the dislocation of the feet can happen to anyone, even the kid who is still and not able to walk.
Symptoms of dislocation of foot
The symptoms of this injury can be divided into 2 categories – generic, which are observed regardless of the location of damage, and specific, peculiar to a specific type and location of the injury.
The very first thing will be to indicate damage to the is the fact of injury. If you describe to the doctor what happened to you, you must do it as detailed as possible. You need to tell how it happened (kick, jump, fall, stumble or injury occurred out of the blue) that you felt immediately after exposure to traumatic factors, expressed as pain, swollen leg immediately or later, if you loaded the leg immediately after the injury or not, what treatment was undertaken to seek medical care, etc. All this will allow the specialist to quickly understand the injury and prescribe the appropriate diagnostic procedures and adequate treatment.
Symptoms of dislocation of the foot:
- Pain. Place of injury pain after trauma, pain increases with every movement.
- Forced position of the foot. The patient tries to take such a position, in which the pain is reduced, but if there was severe dislocation, the pain sometimes can only relieve narcotic analgesics.
- deformity of the joint area. Appear depressions and bulges, which are not physiological, sometimes under the skin you can even feel the head of the dislocated bone.
- Swelling of the joint. The swelling appears immediately after injury and increases. If the volume of the damaged area is progressively increasing, may present such complications as hemarthrosis (bleeding into the cavity of the damaged joint).
- Loss of support and locomotor functions of the legs.
Specific symptoms determined by the physician, it is necessary for a better understanding of the nature of the injury and the setting of concomitant injuries.
First aid and treatment of dislocation of foot
First aid for dislocation of the foot, as in fracture, involves a complete immobilization of the injured extremity.
In any case, do not attempt to straighten a sprained foot. It must be done by only the expert-traumatologist in hospital, sometimes even under General anesthesia using muscle relaxants. Unskillful actions can only aggravate the condition, for example, to damage the vessels or nerves, which could lead to hemorrhage or paralysis of the legs.
If you own a vehicle immobilization skills, you can make a bandage or a splint for the damaged leg (if a dislocated hip, it is impossible to change the position of the feet – just tie the injured limb to healthy). In dislocation of the knee and of the foot it is advisable to apply a bandage of elastic bandage on the injury to prevent swelling, hemarthrosis and reduce pain.
You need to give the victim a pill any anesthetic, if any at hand. You must also provide the damaged leg to an elevated position (this does not apply to dislocation of the hip). To do this, it is possible to enclose under a leg pillow or cushion with clothing. Such action will prevent the further swelling and bleeding.
Be sure to check the pulse of the distal arteries of the foot and sensitivity to mobility of the toes (whether damage to blood vessels or nerves). If these pathological signs are present, it is necessary to bring the patient to the hospital.
Don’t forget to immediately call an ambulance and apply to the affected area the cold. This will reduce the pain, swelling, hemarthrosis warn.
Further treatment is carried out in the casualty Department. The joint is put under local or General anesthesia after the application of exact methods of diagnostics (x-ray). If necessary, carry out an operation to restore the integrity of the ligaments and joint capsule, is assigned to the wearing of a cast for some time. Then begins the rehabilitation period depends on the return function of legs.