Eczema – a chronic, skin, non-infectious, inflammatory disease, characterized by rash, itching, periods of exacerbation and remission (improvement).
Another name for eczema is weeping scab. Translated from ekzeo – boil, hence the property bubbles quickly opened, like bubbles of boiling water.
The disease is widespread.
There are two types of eczema: acute and chronic.
There are the following types of eczema:
- True (idiopathic) form is characterized by acute onset of the disease. The lesions symmetrically (most brushes are involved, but can be located anywhere), the boundaries are fuzzy. Marked foci of reddening, against which are formed vesicles (bubbles), papules (nodules), swollen skin; after a while the bubbles are opened, forming erosion (skin defect), allocated serous content (called eczematous wells) – this state is called the weeping, then the contents shrink and formed serous (if serous contents) or hemorrhagic (i.e. blood ) of the crust.
- Microbial eczema develops at the site of chronic foci of infection, when the accession of infection, we can distinguish the following subtypes.
Mycotic form – when joining a fungal component, joins peeling.
Paratravmaticheskoy form – rash located at the site of injury.
Varicose – on the background of trophic disorders, most often located in the legs, rash bluish-purple color, are arranged asymmetrically.
Numularia (cointype) – bluish-pinkish rash with vesicles, papules, weeping, diameter 1.5 – 3 cm.
Dyshidrotic eczema is localized on the palms, soles, the lateral surface of the fingers is characterized by swelling, oozing, blisters, nodules.
- Seborrheic eczema develops in patients shedding on the skin areas rich in sebaceous glands (scalp, ears, navel, chest, between the shoulder blades, between the buttocks, the elements of the form scaly patches on the background of redness .
- Professional eczema occurs mostly on exposed parts of the skin resulting from exposure to occupational hazards, the diagnosis is made by a pathologist. each new exacerbation flows stronger and harder for longer. When removing causes marked improvement.
- Eczema in children differs by the severity of exudative component, the abundance of precipitation. Affected skin of the face (only the skin around the mouth remains free of lesions). The tendency to the accession of infection.
- Relationsa (masalawala) as dyshidrotic, localized elements on the palms and soles, the horn (surface) layer thickens to form areas of hyperkeratosis in the form of callus at the site of bubble elements.
Symptoms of eczema
With all the varieties of eczema otmechajut swelling, redness of the skin, against this background, vesicles, oozing, serous and/or hemorrhagic crusts, peeling, scratches, cracks, stains from deep pink to bluish-purple color. Severe itching, especially at night and after contact with water.
Causes of eczema
In the heart of the process are immune disorders that lead to allergic inflammation, delayed-type.
The important role of psychosomatic factors, disruption of the nervous, endocrine, digestive systems, external stimuli(physical, chemical, bacterial, etc) , genetic predisposition.
Complications of eczema
Complications include the accession of infection, a fungal component.
Diagnosis is based on clinical and history.
Treatment of eczema
- primarily it is aimed at eliminating the factors that triggered the development of the disease: elimination of neurotic disorders, the elimination of neuroendocrine disorders, exacerbations of chronic diseases, hypoallergenic diet;
- hyposensitization therapy (solutions of sodium thiosulfate, calcium chloride intravenously, calcium gluconate, magnesium sulfate intramuscularly);
- antihistamines (diphenhydramine, pipolfen, suprastin, tavegil, diazolin, cimetidine, zaditen, peritol, lexadin, clarotin, Telfast etc.)
- in severe forms of eczema are appointed by corticosteroid hormones (example: prednisone);
- immunomodulators (dekaris, taktivina, timalin, diutsifon methyluracil, pentoksil);
- in the acute form prescribed gemodez, diuretics;
- B vitamins
- external treatment: lotions with boric acid, silver nitrate, Dimexidum (in acute weeping eczema); solution diprosalic, salicylic ointment, boric ointment, cream with ketoconazole ointment triderm , tselestoderm, lorinden C, diprogenta, ointment Wilkinson, liquid Castellani (after it opening the bubbles treat the skin); baths with potassium permanganate, followed by dissection and dushirovanie bubbles
- minimal contact with water in the period of exacerbation.
Recommendation of a dermatologist for eczema
- During an exacerbation be sure to observe a hypoallergenic diet.
- Contact with household chemicals without wearing gloves, then the skin oil cream.
- Minimal contact with water.