Most cases of food poisoning is caused by breeding in foods of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Poisoning often provoke substandard products with expired shelf life or those that were stored in unsuitable conditions or prepared with the violation of sanitary norms.
Poisoning often cause poisonous mushrooms and plants collected and used as food by ignorance or negligence.
Types of food poisoning:
- Foodborne illness (infectious). Arise from the use of food contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms. For example, stale products. Also to provoke food poisoning can failure to comply with sanitary standards.
- Toxic (non-infectious) poisoning. Occur when ingested with food natural or chemical toxins. For example, poison edible mushrooms and plants, and chemicals.
The last type of poisoning is most dangerous. It is not necessary to deal with them yourself. In cases of suspected non-infectious nature of poisoning should immediately seek medical attention.
Also, regardless of the type of poisoning, medical help is needed for pregnant and breastfeeding women, children and the elderly.
But usually people are faced with diseases that can be cured at home. Next, we will focus on what steps to take to cope with food poisoning.
Symptoms and signs of food poisoning
For foodborne illness depends on the age and General condition of man, as well as species of pathogenic bacteria. But the overall picture is:
- obsessive nausea;
- repeated vomiting;
- weakness, malaise;
- changed the complexion;
Food infections are characterized by short incubation period. The first signs appear 2-6 hours after eating and without treatment are rapidly progressing.
The time of appearance of first symptoms and the symptoms depend on what caused the poisoning.
If a person is poisoned by poor quality food, the first symptoms of intoxication usually appear within 2-4 hours after a meal. If caused by poisonous mushrooms, berries or plants – usually after 4-12 hours.
Characteristic symptoms of diseases – nausea, vomiting, colic, diarrhea. If there is headache, increased body temperature, increased heart rate, the person feels weakness, and the skin became cyanotic – the signs of acute intoxication. This condition requires immediate medical attention.
Poisoning by mushrooms, plants and berries may develop slowly and rapidly. In this case, to save the life of a person every minute.
Food poisoning can be treated at home only with a mild degree of intoxication. But it is to heal, not to neglect. If the threatening symptoms of intoxication that required hospitalization. Especially if the cause of poisoning were mushrooms, canned foods, and alcoholic beverages.
With the appearance of nausea and diarrhea after ingestion of the child, it is recommended to immediately call a doctor.
Treatment of food poisoning
Step 1. Gastric lavage
When the first symptoms to be removed from the body remains toxic food. To do this, the stomach is washed. The algorithm of actions is the same as when rendering first aid.
- Prepare a weak solution of potassium permanganate or baking soda (1.5–2 liters of room temperature water 1 tablespoon of baking soda).
- Have some solution.
- Induce vomiting (two fingers press down on the tongue).
- Repeat the procedure several times until vomit is clean.
Step 2. Reception of sorbents
Sorbents — are drugs that help remove toxins from the body. The best known is activated carbon.
Activated charcoal reduces the absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of toxins, salts of heavy metals, alkaloids and other harmful substances and promotes their excretion from the body.
In other words, if you weigh 70 kg, you will need a minimum of seven tablets. In severe cases, the dosage should be increased.
In case of poisoning by coal is better to adopt in aqueous suspension. To do this, crush the tablet and mix with 100 ml of boiled water at room temperature. The taste of this mix is pretty nasty, but effective against poisoning.
Also, instead of the usual you can use the White activated charcoal. It is believed that this selective, concentrated sorbent. It not just removes toxins, but also retains nutrients. Thus, the dosage is reduced by half: for adults 2-4 tablets depending on the degree of poisoning.
Instead of coal you can use other sorbents (according to instructions). For example, “Smekta”, “Lactofiltrum” and others.
Step 3. Drink plenty of liquids
Vomiting and diarrhea greatly dehydrate the body — you need to replenish fluid loss and to maintain water balance.
Water it is recommended to add some salt: liter of water 1 teaspoon of salt. Saline solution can be alternated with a sweet weak tea.
You can also take a special rehydration means: “Regidron”, “Oralit” and others. This powders and solutions containing mineral salts and glucose and warning signs of dehydration.
Other medicines for food poisoning
As for other medications when the diseases, there are some General rules:
- When to stop active vomiting, it is possible to use drugs that restore the microflora of the intestine (“Hilak Forte” or “Linex”).
- If the temperature rose above 37.5°C degrees, it is necessary to bring down the antipyretic (paracetamol, ibuprofen and others).
- Not recommended for pain: they can complicate the diagnosis in case of complications.
- Anti-Microbial drugs (mostly antibiotics) are used in severe cases of diseases and are assigned exclusively by the doctor.
Step 4. Regime and diet
In food infection the patient experiences extreme weakness. You should stay in bed and the first day to refuse to eat (if impaired appetite and the body rejects food).
On the second or third day can afford the jelly, crackers (without the poppy seeds, raisins, vanilla and any other additives) and liquid mashed potatoes or oat porridge, made with water.
As active treatment symptoms recede — improvement should occur within a few hours. Finally, the body returns to normal, usually within three days. But even a few days can be stored abdominal pain, weakness, flatulence.
If the main symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting, temperature) do not decrease and do not go more than six hours after the start of treatment, consult your doctor.
Step 5. Prevention
From food infections no one is immune. But the strength of each to reduce their risk to a minimum.
- Wash your hands before eating.
- Keep clean in the kitchen, keep the technology of cooking.
- Store the products properly.
- Be picky about the quality of the products when buying. For example, do not buy fish from ammonia smell and “rusty” patina.
- Don’t eat at questionable gastronomic establishments, do not drink water from the tap.
Part of the treatment for poisoning products is diet. In the first days after the symptoms of poisoning disappeared, only drinking regime. If there is hunger, there is a small amount of homemade croutons of white bread. Next food should be easy, boiled, chopped. Start with cereals on the water (oatmeal, rice), vegetable or chicken broth. During the fourth meal you can eat mashed potatoes and low-fat fish fillet, steamed. A day later you can gradually return to normal menu.
Depending on what caused the poisoning, you may need medications, for example, microbicides, and drugs for combating dysbiosis, enzyme preparations. These medications can be taken only on the advice of a doctor.
Treatment of severe food poisoning is carried out only under the supervision of a physician.