Heart attack – severe pathological condition caused by acute emerging shortage of blood supply to the heart muscle (blood clot and/or spasms, usually in the area of atherosclerotic plaques of the arteries supplying the heart) with the development of ischemia and necrosis (necrosis) section of this muscle. Necrosis of heart muscle is called myocardial infarction, and death in the first hour from the onset of the attack is called sudden cardiac or coronary death.
Heart attack Symptoms
Most people experience severe pressing pain in the left half of the chest or behind the breastbone. The pain may spread in the region of the hands, neck, back and jaw, lasting from 30 minutes to several hours. It is important to note that the rest or change body position does not bring relief. Some during a heart attack feel like heartburn, pain in the abdomen may be vomiting, all this may be accompanied by sweating, dizziness or shortness of breath. In persons with diabetes and those over 75 years of chest pain may not be.
The most frequent cause of heart disease is atherosclerosis – a disease in which the walls of blood vessels occur the plaques that hinder the flow of blood. Over time, as a result of the growth of plaque, the arteries of the heart can decrease or get clogged. During a heart attack is a significant violation of either complete cessation of blood flow to the heart muscle.
Partially reduced blood flow in the heart muscle causes short-term pain in the heart or behind the breastbone. Such pain can be angina – a special form of ischemic heart disease, unlike heart attack are up to 20 minutes at rest or after taking special preparations (nitroglycerin).
Anginal pain compared with heart attack.
Signs of a heart attack are similar to symptoms of angina, but have three differences:
More severe pain during a heart attack
The pain lasts more than 20-30 minutes
Nitroglycerin or rest does not relieve pain.
If you feel chest pain during physical exertion, and the pain goes away at rest or after taking nitroglycerin tablets, you likely have angina. Need to consult a doctor.
If you take drugs for pain and not recreation, not medication do not relieve pain, pain attack more than 30 minutes, most likely, you have a heart attack and you should immediately contact the ambulance.
Treatment for heart attack
Angina heart not getting enough oxygen because of reduced blood flow in the heart arteries.
During a heart attack blood flow is absent or greatly reduced, the cells of the heart muscle can not work normally and begin to die. After 3-4 hours the heart damage is already very extensive.
If medical treatment is received within the first hour after a heart attack, the chance to survive and to limit the extent of heart damage maximum.
Turning to the healthcare facility your doctor will remove cardiogram to confirm, do you have a heart attack. Blood tests can also show whether the heart damage. Treatment is usually started before obtaining blood results from the lab.
If a heart attack is confirmed, your doctor may:
Prescribe you medicines to dissolve blood clots and open the arteries. They are called thrombolytic drugs. Most of these drugs are effective during the FIRST hours after onset of a heart attack. Therefore, it is EXTREMELY important to seek help or to bring the patient to the hospital within an hour after started pain or other symptoms.
To give you a drug to relieve pain.
To stabilize heart rhythm.
To stabilize breathing.
To assess the degree of damage of the arteries of the heart, in specialized clinics can be carried out angiography of the vessels of the heart (catheterization of the arteries of the heart, followed by the introduction of radiopaque substances). Depending on that will show this procedure, the cardiologist will be able to access shtrobirovaniya or narrowed arteries using special balloons and metal mesh – stands at catheterization.
When maintaining a healthy lifestyle can prevent a heart attack in the future.
If you have a heart attack can be difficult when making instant decisions about what to do. It is better if you will have a pre-prepared plan.
Your plan emergency assistance:
If you are experiencing signs of a heart attack, you need to know:
WHO will you tell about it.
WHEN you seek medical help, and HOW you get there will be.
WHAT information you will need to inform the doctor.
No. 1 – tell someone about their feelings and their fears of a potential heart attack. If you are alone when the signs of a heart attack, now decide who to call and keep his/her number in his hands. It may be a friend or a doctor.
No. 2 – decide when you will consult a doctor for help. If you have already been to the doctor in connection with angina, your doctor will tell you when you call for help. Don’t wait more than 5 minutes and call an ambulance. This is especially true if the symptoms are pronounced and different from any pain you have experienced angina in the past.
Sit quietly in a comfortable position and loosen clothing. Open the window, if the room is not ventilated.
No. 3 – decide how you will appeal to:
Are you going to call an ambulance or have someone take me to the hospital?
It is always better to call an ambulance. In very rare cases, some people living near the hospital, you can reach it much faster.
The ambulance that will come to you, equipped with special devices that can literally save your life, if you suddenly stop the heart.
If you are prescribed any medications, follow the doctor’s instructions. If after taking of nitroglycerin within 5 minutes the pain is not gone, you need to call an ambulance. Don’T wait more than 5 minutes, if the pain is severe and differs from pain in angina. Immediately call an ambulance.
No. 4 – be Prepared to tell the doctor:
What kind of pain you are experiencing
When she started
Has it changed since its beginning
What medications have you taken for pain relief.
When a heart attack patient doctors interested in:
If you have previously suffered a heart attack
If you have previously suffered angina
What drugs you regularly take.
Upon arrival at the emergency Department /hospital, say “I Think I’m having a heart attack”. If you won’t say it, but the doctors will be any emergency calls, you may not receive immediate assistance, and you will not have proper attention. Some are afraid or embarrassed to speak such a phrase. Others deny the presence of a heart attack by convincing themselves that they have indigestion, or any disease of muscles. Approximately 1/3 of patients who had not called the ambulance, dying.
Cardiac arrest can be caused a heart attack. Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart ceases to pump blood to the organs of the body.
10 seconds after the heart stops, the person loses consciousness. If you shake the person or anything he just yell response.
Once the heart stops, the breath can also polnostu to stop. If this happens, it is believed that the person stop the heart and lungs. Without chest compressions the person will die!
Not all heart attacks lead to cardiac arrest. However, if this happens, the person or persons who is with you should call the ambulance, and then immediately begin chest compressions.
Medical devices and drugs for heart attack
In the last few years, there are a lot of special devices that can help to restore normal functioning of the heart in sudden death. These devices known as automated external defibrillators or. These life-saving devices can be found in many institutions and aircraft.
If the automatic external defibrillator is available, it must be used before conducting indirect cardiac massage or to call an ambulance.
These devices are easy to handle. It is important that you, your family, friends learned how to use them. Ask at your nearest hospital held a training briefing on how to use the defibrillator.
Prevention of heart attack
Drugs, procedures and surgeries do not cure coronary heart disease. If you don’t maintain a healthy lifestyle, atherosclerotic narrowing of vessels will become more pronounced and can lead to a heart attack.
Below are 9 recommendations on maintaining a healthy lifestyle, which improves the condition of your heart:
Be active, but under medical supervision
Stick to a healthy balanced diet, rich in fiber and low in fat
Check the level of cholesterol in the blood. If it is high, control its level
To regularly measure the pressure. If it is high, control its level
If you lose weight
Check blood sugar levels. If it is high, control its level
Sleep at Night as much as is enough for you.
If you have angina or have underlying diseases, consult your doctor before starting physical activity or weight loss.
Moreover, a reasonable combination of drugs may also reduce the risk of heart attack:
Vasodilators, lowering the pressure, relaxing and widening blood vessels
Aspirin, reducing the likelihood of blood clots
Statins, lowering “bad” cholesterol, which can be embedded in the artery
Beta blockers, relaxing the heart muscle and allows the heart to pump blood much easier.
Heart attack occurs more commonly in persons with coronary heart disease. If left untreated heart trouble, heart attack can lead to death. In order to prevent the need to completely change your lifestyle and develop healthy habits.
If you have coronary heart disease, your chances of survival after a heart attack significantly increase provided that you have a plan of action. It includes determining who to call, when to call an ambulance how to get to the hospital and what to tell the paramedics. Currently medical technology allows you to fully recover after suffering a disease. However, recovery is dependent on how soon you go to the doctors!