Cardiology

Heart disease – symptoms and treatment


Heart disease - causes, symptoms and treatment

According to statistics, mortality from diseases of the cardiovascular system in the world growing all the time. The study of the causes of these diseases has shown that some of them are infection, while others are hereditary or congenital diseases.

However, the largest group of diseases is largely the consequences of bad habits and poor lifestyle choices. Such diseases are to some extent preventable.

Given the nature and cause of heart disease can be divided into five different groups:

  • rheumatic,
  • syphilis,
  • atherosclerotic disease and high blood pressure,
  • congenital,
  • functional.

In Addition, there are some diseases that do not fall into any of the aforementioned groups and worthy of special mention. It:

  • acute dilatation of the heart, resulting from overload weak heart muscle large amount of blood, it stretches increases in size and filled with blood,
  • atrial fibrillation (rapid contraction of individual muscle fibers of the Atria, with a full contraction of the Atria is not happening) that accompanies heart failure,
  • atrial flutter (regular, but accelerated contraction of the Atria, which do not have time ventricles),
  • paroxysmal tachycardia (periods of very rapid heartbeat)
  • coronary thrombosis, which usually occurs as a result of atherosclerosis,
  • myocardial infarction (necrosis of part of the heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply),
  • heart disease is the end result of any cardiac disease

Causes of heart disease

The cause of rheumatic diseases can be both viral and bacterial infection, or a combination thereof. Manifestations on the part of the heart may include endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), pericarditis (inflammation of the outer lining of the heart) or myocarditis (inflammation of heart muscle). Unfortunately, each of these pathologies can lead to irreparable damage to the heart.

Causes of heart diseaseIf incorrect or inadequate treatment of infectious agents (streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, influenza virus) can migrate through the blood stream and infect the heart valves, causing inflammation. After suffering rheumatic fever are formed defects of the heart valves, which prevent the proper flow of blood. Now, in order to pump blood, the heart will be reduced with greater and greater force.

By itself, syphilis does not cause heart damage. He strikes the wall of the aortic arch and aortic valve. In this case, often formed defect of the aortic valve in the form of deficiency (leaf valves become weakened, stretched and partially destroyed). So, just thrown out of the heart into the aorta, the blood is free to flow back into the left ventricle during diastole of the heart (the time between contractions). In the left ventricle begins to accumulate a larger volume of blood, the heart muscle no longer cope with the load, and the ventricle is greatly increased.

Atherosclerosis causes narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to poorer blood supply of organs, including the heart muscle. Arterial hypertension creates an additional burden on the heart. The combination of high stress and a weakened heart muscle can eventually cause damage to the body.

Causes of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension:

  • natural process of aging,
  • sensitivity to tobacco and other toxins
  • long infection,
  • anxiety, stress, stressful life, the excess cholesterol in the body.

Congenital heart disease occur quite frequently. In many cases, they did not manifest themselves and are diagnosed during routine inspections.

There are several congenital diseases that have very obvious symptoms

Congenital stenosis of the aorta is too narrow lumen of the aorta, which leads to severe high blood pressure in the upper body and low at the bottom. Complications can be bleeding in the brain.

The presence of any holes in the walls separating the heart chambers, not Bamyan oval window (an opening in the septum between the Atria, which is the norm in the fetus), ductus arteriosus (vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the aorta in the prenatal period). With these defects of the arterial and venous blood are mixed, and thus the organism is posted is not enough oxygen-rich blood. There is cyanosis of the face and extremities, shortness of breath, specific extensions fingertips they become like drum sticks, and an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells.

Hypoplasia or aplasia of the pulmonary artery prevents good aeration of the blood in the lungs.

Functional diseases of various cardiac abnormalities that do not result in any organic changes or diseases (e.g., tachycardia). Main reasons:
Symptoms of heart disease

  • toxins and poisons, trapped in the body or produced by the body, perhaps intestinal tract,
  • severe agitation, or Vice versa, depression,
  • drinking coffee, tea, tobacco, alcoholic beverages,
  • indigestion, constipation.

Symptoms of heart disease

  • shortness of breath with little exertion or alone,
  • weakness, poor endurance,
  • palpitations,
  • dry cough,
  • periods of rapid and uneven breathing,
  • choking, constricting pain in the chest, the dull pain and discomfort in the liver or heart,
  • swelling of the legs (especially in the evening), night ill try to lift the upper body (with pillows), so it is easier for them to breathe,
  • restless sleep, insomnia,
  • the weaker the heart, the stronger swollen legs, pain in the chest and back, breathing becomes difficult, while the person will not lie.
Self treatment for heart disease

If you find yourself these symptoms, consult a doctor. Patients with acute heart failure should always be under the supervision of a therapist, and patients with chronic cardiac diseases have regular checkups. No special treatment regimen at home there. On the contrary, patients are strongly advised not to self-medicate and seek medical advice.

During treatment, avoid strong psychological and physical stress, do not drink cold water and not prekladateli.

Treatment of heart disease in the hospital

For diagnosis, the doctor will check the basic parameters of vital body functions such as body temperature, pulse, breathing and heart rate, blood pressure.

If the main indicators of the condition of the body there is any deviation, the reasons which may be associated with the heart, the doctor will guide you on the electrocardiogram. This is a simple, painless study. You may also take a blood test, because the damaged heart allocates certain proteins that are found in the blood.

You can assign a stress test. You will be connected to the device, removing the ECG, and you will walk on a treadmill or pedaling on a stationary bike. Such testing is necessary because some of the signs of heart disease do not appear until the heart is not subjected to any load.

You may need angiography x-ray of blood vessels for the detection of thrombosis and insufficient blood supply to the organs.

On the basis of the diagnosis, you will be prescribed appropriate therapy. Treatment of heart disease usually takes years or even a lifetime. That is why you need regular checkups doctors and correction treatment.

In more severe or acute situations may require more radical procedures such as the implantation of an electronic cardiac pacemaker or bypass surgery.
If necessary, your doctor may refer you for consultation to the psychologist. After a heart attack is often depression.

Also you can recommend a suitable rehabilitation program. Nowadays, many hospitals offer such programs for the survivors of myocardial infarction and other serious diseases. They include special exercises, which are conducted under the supervision of a physician, as well as constant monitoring of the heart.

Prevention of heart disease

Prevention of heart diseasePrevention of many congenital diseases is the observance of mother’s day regimen, diet, giving up bad habits, regular visits to the gynecologist during pregnancy.

For the prophylaxis of rheumatic diseases, you must fully complete the treatment you may have infectious diseases. If you are prescribed a course of antibiotics lasting 7-10 days, go through it completely, even if you feel better on the third or fourth day of treatment. Otherwise, remaining in the body, the infection may cause the development of heart disease.

Watch out for the health of children, especially when it comes to infections of the upper respiratory tract and throat. If these infections are not treated or treated illiterate (for example, wrong to take antibiotics), then they can lead to heart disease.
The only way to prevent syphilitic heart disease is the prevention of infection. Avoid frequent change of sexual partners, use of barrier methods of contraception.

Prevention of atherosclerosis and hypertension is diet, moderation in eating and regular physical activity. The older you become, the more important it is to follow these tips.