Cardiology

Heart disease


Heart disease - causes, symptoms and treatment

A healthy heart is strong, tirelessly working muscle pump. The size of it a bit more of a human fist.

The heart has four chambers: two upper are called Atria, and two lower ventricles. Blood consistently comes from the Atria to the ventricles, and then in the main artery through the four heart valves. The valves open and close to let blood in only one direction.

Heart disease is a congenital or acquired changes of the structures of the heart (valves, partitions, walls, waste receptacles) violates the movement of blood inside the heart or on the big and small circles of blood circulation.

All heart diseases are divided into two groups: congenital and purchased.

Congenital heart defects occur in the period from the second to the eighth week of pregnancy and occur in 5-8 newborns from thousands.

The causes of most birth defects of the cardiovascular system are still unknown. However, it is known that when the family of one child with congenital heart disease the risk of having other children with this kind of disease may increase slightly, but still remains quite low – between 1 to 5 percent. Congenital heart defects can also be caused by exposure to the mother’s body radiation, to be a result of taking during pregnancy, alcohol, drugs, certain drugs (drugs lithium, warfarin). Also dangerous viral and other infections, women in the first trimester of pregnancy (rubella, influenza, hepatitis b).

Recent studies have shown that children of women suffering from overweight or obesity, a 36 percent greater risk of being born with congenital heart disease and other disorders of the cardiovascular system than children of women with normal weight. The reason for the connection between the weight of the mother and the risk of heart disease in their future children yet to be determined.

The most common causes of acquired heart disease are rheumatic fever and infective endocarditis, less frequently, atherosclerosis, trauma, or syphilis.

Types of heart disease

Types of heart diseaseThe most common and severe congenital malformations can be divided into two main groups. The first group includes heart defects caused by the presence of workarounds (shunts), which comes from the lungs oxygenated blood is pumped back into the lungs. This increases the pressure on the right ventricle and the blood vessels carrying blood to the lungs. To such defects include:
the ductus arteriosus cleft – vessel, by which the fetal blood bypasses still not working light;
-atrial septal defect (conservation hole between the two Atria to the moment of birth);
-ventricular septal defect (gap between the left and right ventricles).
Another group of malformations associated with obstruction to blood flow, resulting in increased workload on the heart. These include, for example, coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta or narrowing (stenosis) of the pulmonary or aortic heart valves.

Valvular insufficiency (expansion valve orifice at which the closed shutters of the valve is not fully closed, letting the blood in the opposite direction) in adults can result from gradual degeneration of the valves at two types of congenital disorders:
-at 1 percent of people the arterial valve has not three but only two shutters,
-5-20 percent occurs with mitral valve prolapse. It is not life-threatening disease rarely leads to severe valve insufficiency.
On top of these cardiac troubles, many types of congenital disorders of the heart and blood vessels are found not only separately, but also in various combinations. For example, tetralogy of Fallot, the most common cause of cyanosis (cyanosis) of the child, is a combination of four heart defects: ventricular septal defect, narrowing of the exit of the right ventricle (pyloric stenosis pulmonary artery), increase (hypertrophy) of the right ventricle and displacement of the aorta.

Acquired defects are formed in the form of stenosis or insufficiency of one of the heart valves. Most often affected mitral valve (located between the left atrium and ventricle), less aortic valve (between the left ventricle and the aorta), yet at least – tricuspid (between the right atrium and ventricle) and the valve of the pulmonary artery (between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery).

Valvular disease can also be combined (when struck 2 or more valves) and combined (when one valve is present phenomena and stenosis, insufficiency).

The cause of heart disease

Having a congenital heart defect, some time after birth the baby may look quite healthy. However, this imaginary being rarely lasts longer than until the third year of life. Subsequently, the disease begins to manifest itself: the child lags behind in physical development, there is shortness of breath during physical exertion, pallor or even cyanosis of the skin.

The cause of heart diseaseFor the so-called “blue vices” characteristic attacks that occur suddenly: there are concerns that the child is excited, increasing shortness of breath and blueness of the skin (cyanosis), possible loss of consciousness. Such attacks are often observed in children of early age (up to two years). They also characteristic a favorite pose of rest on his haunches.

“Pale” defects manifested by a delay in the development of the lower half of the body and the appearance of aged 8-12 years with complaints of a headache, shortness of breath, dizziness, pain in the heart, abdomen and legs.

Diagnosis of heart disease

Diagnosis of heart diseases are the cardiologist and the cardiac surgeon. Method of echocardiography allows using ultrasound to investigate the condition of the heart muscle and valves, to estimate the speed of the blood in the cavities of the heart. To clarify the state of the heart using x-ray examination (chest x-rays) and ventriculography – x-rays using special contrast agent.

When the research activity of the heart by an obligatory method electrocardiogram (EKG), often used methods based on it: stress ECG (Bicycle ergometry, treadmill test) record the electrocardiogram during exercise and Holter-ECG monitoring is the recording of ECG, which are held during the day.

Treatment of heart disease

Currently, many from heart diseases amenable to surgical treatment, which provides the possibility of further normal life. The majority of these operations is performed on a stopped heart with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In people with acquired heart disease the main methods of surgical treatment are mitral comissurotomy and prosthetic valve.

Prevention of heart disease

Preventive measures that are guaranteed to save you from heart disease does not exist. However, you can significantly reduce the risk of acquiring a blemish prevention and timely treatment of streptococcal infections (which is often angina), because their soil is developing rheumatism. If rheumatic attack has already occurred, do not neglect billingparadise, which assigns the attending physician.

People at risk of infective endocarditis (for example, suffered rheumatic attack in the past or who have mitral valve prolapse) necessary prophylactic administration of certain antibiotics before various manipulations, such as removal of teeth, tonsils, adenoids, and other operations. Such prevention requires a serious attitude, it is much easier to prevent heart disease than to cure it. Moreover, no matter how improved technology operations, healthy heart works much better than the heart after surgery.