Dermatology - diseases of the skin

Herpes


Herpes

Herpes – small painful vesicles on the lips and face, appearing in the cold.But actually its variants much more. The reason herpes is an extremely contagious virus that is transmitted from person to person.

Scientists identify 8 types of herpes viruses, of which “cold” on lips can cause two: herpes virus type 1 (more common) and type 2 (rarely). The hallmark of all herpes viruses is the ability to find hidden inside the cells until such time as decreased immunity will not allow the herpes to move to the next stage of the disease at which it begins to multiply.

Herpes viruses are extremely widespread in nature and among people. This is largely due to the high infectiousness and easy transmission of the virus. At room temperature the virus can remain active till day.
Infection occurs by contact of particles of the virus on the mucous membranes (mouth, nose, eyes, genitals) from an infected person. Children have enough contact with intact skin.

Penetrated into the body, the virus in the nerve endings migrating to nerve cells (neurons), where it conceals itself until favorable conditions. Once the immune protection is reduced, it begins to multiply and cause characteristic symptoms for herpes.

Herpes on lips

Herpes on lipsHerpes on the lips and face caused predominantly the first type of virus and sometimes the second, being transferred through droplets of saliva through close contact. Symptoms of herpes usually appear in the form of finely blisters filled with clear liquid. They are very itchy and sore, touching or until they are very painful.

Genital herpes

The cause of genital herpes in most cases is the herpes virus type that causes rashes on the genitals in both men and women. It is passed from person to person during unprotected sex. the Symptoms of penile herpes is almost identical to that on the lips, except for the location of the bubbles.
The first and the second type of viruses are referred to collectively as “herpes simplex virus” because they can cross to hit characteristic for each other area: face and genitals, in case of accidental contact at the appropriate places.
Except the lips herpes simplex can spread and cause inflammation of the oral mucosa –stomatitis, which very often manifests itself herpes in children. Herpetic stomatitis can go into a herpetic sore throat. In newborns, the virus can cause damage to eyes and even the brain (herpes meningitis).

Herpes on the body (tinea)

Is caused by a virus of the third type are the same as chicken pox in children. Chickenpox is a primary a reaction to the penetration of the virus. After the acute stage of herpes the disease becomes chronic cold sores, the virus hides in the nerve cells for several decades, and then for yet unknown reasons the herpes virus activates and causes in some people shingles. Signs of herpes zoster are lesions on the chest, on the one hand, along the ribs, in rare cases neck. They are accompanied by severe pain, which in some cases remains for a long time (herpetic neuralgia). Rarely, the virus affects the eye nerves, and then signs of herpes rash appear around the eyes. This is one of the most serious forms of the disease.
Other types of herpes viruses can cause lymphoma (4 type), infectious mononucleosis (type 5), baby roseola (6 type), Kaposi’s sarcoma (8 type). With herpes virus 7 type associated chronic fatigue syndrome.

Treatment of herpes

Treatment of herpesTo fully cure the body from the herpes virus to date is impossible, because most of the time he is in an inactive state in the cell nucleus. But the unpleasant symptoms of herpes can be treated. Medications can reduce the duration and frequency of chronic manifestations of herpes. They can also help to reduce the risk of transmission of herpes is the 2nd type are susceptible to the virus to partners. What can you do to treat the symptoms of herpes? There are only a few medicines for the treatment of herpes that have proven effectiveness. The main of them are: acyclovir, valacyclovir (converted in the body to acyclovir), and famciclovir. Molecule of acyclovir is embedded in the DNA of the virus and “deceiving” him, disrupting the breeding process. Treatment of herpes acyclovir is relatively safe for humans, if you treat a cold sore in short courses. It can be applied even in newborns. Famciclovir is slightly stronger, but much more expensive and only used inside.
To cure herpes on the face or genitals, in most cases, it helps to use the ointment with acyclovir or its analogues. If you make it in time, before the advent of large bubbles, it is possible to cope with the disease at home.
If the rash is very strong, distributed over a large area, accompanied by temperature, it is better to call the doctor. Examining you, he will tell what to treat cold sores, for example, prescribe the intake of acyclovir tablets. In some extreme cases (for example, herpes meningitis) acyclovir can be used to treat herpes intravenously. However, remember that long-term administration of these drugs into (over 10 days) may affect the liver and should be done only under the supervision of a physician.
With abundant rash sometimes appears the risk of getting into the sores, a secondary bacterial infection. To prevent this you need to treat a skin rash by any antiseptic solution: brilliant green, chlorhexidine, Miramistin, etc.
Strengthening the immune system – the second way to get rid of herpes.It is appropriate in a period when there is no acute manifestations (bubbles) and will help to reduce the number of exacerbations of chronic herpes, but do not eliminate the virus completely.

Herpes in children

Herpes in infants necessarily requires a call to the pediatrician, because only the doctor knows how to treat a cold sore in each case. For a small child this is a pretty serious disease. Infected child from their parents. Therefore, if you have a herpes attack and got a rash on my lips, do everything possible not to infect the baby (see prevention of herpes). Genital herpes can be transmitted from mother to child during childbirth, if she has rashes on the genitals.
Herpes simplex can cause not only rashes on the face, and stomatitis (up to 80% of all disease in children caused by this virus), sore throat, pneumonia and meningitis. All this is dangerous for the baby disease. Except for the first and second types of the virus children can hit the third type (chickenpox), and the sixth type (children roseola).

Genital herpes during pregnancy

If primary genital herpes infection occurs during pregnancy, the risk of harmful effects on the fetus is large enough. In many cases it can cause miscarriage or malformations in the child, because the mother’s body is still no herpes antibodies, the virus crosses the placenta to the fetus and damage it.
If the contamination occurred before the pregnancy, we generated maternal antibody does not give the herpes virus to multiply actively, protecting the fetus. In this case, the danger is only delivery in the presence of herpes sores on the genitals.

Prevention of herpes

Prevention of herpes needs to be aimed at so as not to infect other people (mostly children, because most adults are already infected). If you have sores on the lips – wear a gauze bandage, don’t kiss the baby, do not touch the sores and wash your hands as often as possible. You can’t use the same dishes for a sick and healthy person.
Genital herpes is transmitted through sexual contact, usually if the patient has the rash. But we must remember that in some people, the isolation of the virus occurs even in the absence of the rash, so the risk of infection is not completely excluded. Prevent infection and herpes in this case, condoms are quite effective, you can also use candles with benzalkonium chloride and Miramistin. However, the most reliable way is to have one sexual partner.