There is hardly a person who never heard anyone complaining of high blood pressure, or himself had no such problems. And no wonder, because periodic or permanent increase in blood pressure is detected, according to various sources, from 10-30% of the adult population. Approximately 9 out of 10 cases it is a separate disease – eseentially, or primary arterial hypertension. In other cases, the increased pressure develops on the soil of diseases of other organs, most commonly the kidneys, endocrine glands and lungs, is the so – called secondary hypertension.
Untreated hypertension leads to the disruption of many organs and body systems. In particular, significantly increases the risk of development of such severe diseases as myocardial infarction and stroke, impaired kidney function, suffers vision. As a consequence, quality of life, reduces efficiency up to disability. No wonder that in many countries there are national programmes for combating hypertension, and many pharmaceutical laboratories engaged in the development of more efficient, safe and convenient to use drugs to control blood pressure.
But despite all efforts, the statistics do not inspire much optimism, and blame themselves often hypertensive patients, disorderly related to its state – scientists from the U.S. estimated that of all Americans suffering from arterial hypertension, only 1/3 knows about it, from the third only takes 1/3 the treatment, and of these, in turn, only 1/3 is treated adequately, i.e. maintains its pressure is within normal limits. In our country the situation is, unfortunately, no better.
What is hypertension
The term “hypertension” within the meaning similar to the term “arterial hypertension”, but it is less accurate, as literally the word of hypertension translates as increased blood pressure, and hypertension as a rising tone (which is not always strictly correspond to the situation – blood pressure can be achieved with the same or even reduced vascular tone).
Speaking of “hypertension” mean disease or condition in which blood pressure rises above normal.
At any age it is normal for the pressure to 130/85 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury). Since the pressure of 140/90 mm Hg you can talk about the presence of hypertension. Pressure 130-140/85-90 mm Hg is considered to be high normal. The pressure is recorded by two numbers. More of them indicates systolic pressure (also sometimes referred to as “upper”), which is fixed at the time of systole – contraction of the cardiac muscle and a smaller end – diastolic (respectively bottom), it is determined at the time of diastole – relaxation of heart muscles. In addition, an important characteristic of vascular tone is the so-called “average” blood pressure, calculated as the product of systolic and twice diastolic pressure divided by three.
Causes of hypertension
The pressure increases due to the increase in cardiac output or increased tonus of vessels, an important role in the regulation of which belongs to the kidneys.
There are two large groups of arterial hypertension:
–essential arterial hypertension (formerly called “essential hypertension”) is a disease, based on the increase in blood pressure is not caused by diseases of other organs (kidneys, endocrine glands, heart);
–secondarysymptomatic) hypertension, in which increased blood pressure is associated with certain diseases or injuries of organs or systems involved in the regulation of blood pressure.
Thus, the hypertension may be kidney (e.g. glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis), Central (brain), hemodynamic (with the defeat of the aortic valve of the heart or aorta), pulmonology (chronic lung disease), endocrine (diseases of the adrenal gland or thyroid gland). Importantly, treatment of hypertension is the treatment of the disease, that caused it. In some cases, arterial hypertension takes place after the elimination of the underlying disease.
Periodic rise in blood pressure can be caused by disorders of breathing during sleep, such as obstructive sleep apnea. Neuroses are often accompanied by elevations or depressions pressure, and they can alternate. Arterial pressure can be increased (up to stroke) due to improper use of certain drugs, excessive consumption of caffeine-containing drinks and other stimulants.
High blood pressure Symptoms
To determine the presence and degree of hypertension used regular measurement of blood pressure for several days at different times of the day – the so-called pressure prole. Rather it is determined by using the daily monitoring of pressure, as a rule, with simultaneous registracia ECG.
For the diagnosis of hypertension also used a range of methods aimed at the study of the blood vessels. The cause of hypertension can be of kidney disease, so spend angiography of the renal vessels and ultrasound examination of the kidneys. Early lesions of the vessels are determined using Doppler ultrasound. Necessarily investigated the activity of the heart using ECG in different variations (resting ECG, treadmill test, Holter monitoring) and method of echocardiography.
The fundus of the eye, i.e. the inner layer of the eye as a mirror, reflects the state of the blood vessels throughout the body, so in addition to the consultation of the cardiologist is necessary to consult an ophthalmologist, specializing in cardiology.
You can often find the opinion that with good endurance high numbers of blood pressure can not be treated. This is not only wrong, but dangerous. Chronically elevated levels of blood pressure may contribute to the development of complications such as heart failure, kidney failure, visual impairment, stroke, coronary heart disease. So it is better to be treated.
There is an opinion that, as a rule, in the treatment of hypertension doctors tend to decrease pressure to the so-called “working the numbers”, i.e. those of which the person claims they are “normal”. Sometimes some patients may declare that “working pressure” for him – 160/100 mm RT. Art. and when such figures he normally feels”. This approach is erroneous. The doctor certainly will aim to reduce blood pressure to normal values. This is a completely unique approach, now featured all leading experts. There are only two exceptions to this rule – a pronounced narrowing of the renal arteries in cases where it is not possible to immediately perform surgery to correct the condition and severe renal insufficiency.
Should be noted that lowering blood pressure to normal values should occur gradually. In particular, the threat may be simultaneously reducing the pressure by more than 25 percent of the original level.
And finally, a few words about how relates to the treatment of arterial hypertension, Smoking and alcohol intake. On a point of order.
Smoking is not conducive to health in General, and normalize blood pressure in particular. Nicotine constricts blood vessels and this leads to increased pressure. Talking about the fact that Smoking calms and thus contributes to the reduction of pressure should not be taken seriously. It turns out that high blood pressure you should not smoke. Alcohol in moderate doses (up to 30 ml in terms of pure alcohol per day) may reduce vascular tone and thus reduce pressure. Even beer (of course not in overdoses), contrary to popular belief does not lead to worsening hypertension (of course, you need to have healthy kidneys).