Flu the most common of infectious diseases. The epidemic rise in incidence is observed annually in the autumn-winter period, once every 30 to 40 years are recorded influenza pandemic. The disease is caused by RNA-containing virus; its antigenic properties subdivided into type a (subtypes A1 and A2), b and C.
Source of infection — a sick man, the way of transmission — airborne, infection is possible at a distance of 2.5 m from the source of infection.
The clinical picture. The incubation period from 12 hours to 3 days.
Symptoms of flu
Acute onset of the disease. Appear chilliness, bursting pain in the muscles and joints, headache, weakness. The temperature rises to 38–40C.
Fever lasts 3-6 days. Marked soreness in the eyeballs, dizziness, tinnitus, dryness and tickling in the throat, chest pain, dry cough, nasal congestion, with 2-3 days — Muco-purulent discharge from the nose.
On examination revealed hyperemia of the face, hyperemia and granularity of soft and hard palate, relative bradycardia, arterial hypotension. Tongue coated, constipation, decreased appetite. Abdominal pain and diarrhoea with the flu are not observed.
Of the most frequent complications of pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media. It is also possible hemorrhagic pulmonary edema, hemorrhagic encephalitis, collapse, brain edema, convulsive syndrome. There is often an exacerbation of chronic lung diseases, cardiovascular system, kidneys and urinary tract.
The prognosis is favorable, however, in complicated forms of the disease can be fatal.
Treatment of influenza
The bulk of the patients treated at home. The indication for hospitalization is a severe course of the disease (hyperthermia, convulsions, loss of consciousness, meningeal syndrome, severe arterial hypotension, violation of rhythm of cardiac activity), complications and severe comorbidities.
At home symptomatic therapy: excessive drinking, diaphoretic, thermal treatments, inhalations. In the early stages of the disease effective rimantadine, oxolinic ointment in the nasal passages, dripping leukocyte interferon in the nose every 1-2 hours for 2-3 days. According to the testimony used acetylsalicylic acid, antihistamines.
Antibiotics and sulfonamides is indicated only in the presence of bacterial complications, and also for the prevention of exacerbations of chronic inflammatory diseases. In hospital intensive detoxification therapy, oxygen therapy, treatment of complications.
Prevention is aimed at isolation of the patient, the use of gauze masks when dealing with him, the restriction of mass actions in the closed premises and airing.
Direct contact with patients prescribed rimantadine and oxolinic ointment in the nasal passages 2 times a day. Carry out vaccination.