Worldwide IVF (in vitro fertilization) is considered as the main method of fertility treatment. It is effective in all its forms. In addition, IVF – often the only solution for families with a sick man.
In vitro fertilization is a relatively young method of infertility treatment. It was first used in England in 1978. However, 200 years ago made such attempts.
The essence of IVF (in vitro fertilization): the sperm meet the egg in vitro and then implanted into the womb of a barren woman or a surrogate mother. The favorable outcome of the procedure (the pregnancy), there are frequent cases where fertilization of the tubes leads to multiple pregnancy: conceived twins or triplets because you try in vitro fertilization attended several eggs. The desire of women may be the reduction (removal of excess embryos), but sometimes it leads to death and the remaining to the subsequent miscarriage.
The success of the IVF procedure is approximately 30-35%.
When used IVF (in vitro fertilization)?
IVF assist is effective for those forms of infertility when to eliminate the cause of preventing conception is not possible. For example, after ectopic pregnancies, when removed, one or both fallopian tubes; after inflammatory diseases, when the patency of the fallopian tubes broken and restore it does not seem possible.
In cases where sperm is not enough or when it is a low-sperm-doctors-andrologists developed methods for producing sperm by artificial means using puncture or surgery. When male factor infertility is not necessary to perform the conception with IVF, you can simply enter artificially derived sperm into the uterus. However, given that such a method of obtaining a sperm complicated, in this case, the use of the IVF procedure gives more chances for success.
As is often used IVF?
Unfortunately, the IVF procedure is not often used. There are many reasons to:
first, this method of treatment of roads and is not included in the MLA program, means are not available to all patients;
secondly, IVF centers, few are subsidized by the state and can only be found in large cities.
If an infertile couple turned in one of the centers of IVF (in vitro fertilization) for infertility treatment, the first step will be the examination of both partners. The woman is usually performed ultrasound, blood tests for hormones, tests for AIDS, hepatitis, syphilis. The male semen. If necessary, conducted genetic analyses. The survey takes approximately 2 weeks. After the examination, the decision of which treatment of infertility shown each specific pair.
Before conception with IVF woman appointed special hormones that stimulate the growth and maturation of more than one or two (as in a regular cycle), and multiple follicles. This is necessary because for the IVF procedure you need to have some extra embryos. The woman herself doing their daily injections of the hormone. The duration of hormonal treatment is on average 2 weeks.
Then the woman made a puncture of follicles. The procedure is performed on an outpatient basis. Needle through the vagina under ultrasound ripe follicles from the ovaries. Thus, you get a few eggs. This procedure is less traumatic and complications it is unlikely.
If the man is healthy – difficulties with getting the right amount of sperm is usually not the case. In those cases, when spermatogenesis is impaired, the man needs special treatment.
There are situations where sperm is produced, but getting it by natural means is not possible. Then the doctor performs a biopsy. This manipulation is performed under General anaesthesia. There is a possibility of fertilization of the ovum by a single sperm.
In vitro fertilization
Directly conception through IVF is carried out by the embryologists in the embryology laboratory conditions. With the use of modern equipment in a special solution is the connection of sperm and egg. After 2-4 days the embryos are ready for the next stage.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a method of research embryos resulting from IVF, before his transfer to the uterus. Using modern genetic technologies can be examined embryo, consisting of only 4-8 cells. Using this method of diagnostics detect a gross malformations of the embryo and hereditary chromosomal disorders such as down syndrome, hemophilia, etc. in Addition, using preimplantational diagnosis can determine the sex of the unborn child.
The transfer of embryos into the uterus
The transfer of embryos into the uterus is the most simple of the whole method. Using special elastic catheter 2-3 fertilized egg is transferred into the uterine cavity. It does not require anesthesia.
After transfer of oocytes woman can go home to work. No special treatment is not required. However, in some IVF centers are granted sick leave. Of course, after the procedure, women are not recommended great physical and emotional stress.
Pregnancy in IVF occurs in 30-35% of cases. 20 the pregnancy childbirth ends in the middle 18. After the introduction of the embryos once in three days to control the level of hormones in the blood. 12 days is a pregnancy test. In case of multiple pregnancy on the woman’s desire to perform reduction – removal of “excess” embryos.
Childbirth during pregnancy after IVF are no different from the usual. In cases where the cause of infertility is a disease of women, childbirth is conducted with regard to a particular disease. The method of fertilization is already irrelevant.
According to doctors, the fertilization of the tubes does not affect future child and he is no different from other children born naturally. However, it is believed that these children learn better, but often ill. The doctors believe that it may be associated with excessive care wanted child.
The number of IVF attempts
As you know, pregnancy occurs in only 30-35% of IVF attempts. The question arises: how to be 70 out of 100 women who were not pregnant? How many times can you attempt IVF?
In each case, this question is solved individually. , The IVF procedure itself is quite safe and can be repeated many times. Some couples pregnancy comes with 8-10 attempts. A reasonable limit for the number of procedures is, it is determined by the doctor depending on the specific situation. When repeated attempts, you can use embryos that have not been used in previous times. Unfortunately, the guarantee of pregnancy with IVF nobody can give.
By follicle puncture can be received more than the required number of eggs. In these cases, healthy women offer to become donors. Their eggs will be used in those cases when the patient does not have its own eggs after removal of the ovaries, menopause, when modified ovaries and other
In order to encourage the donation, the woman who had agreed to give her eggs, less pay for the IVF attempt. Of course, the anonymous oocyte donation, the donor has no rights to the child born from her eggs.
Donor eggs are fertilized with the sperm of the husband of the woman, which they are implanted. In this case, hormonal preparation for IVF is not required. In most IVF centres excess fertilized and unfertilized embryos are stored in a frozen state regardless of whether they used other women or not. The retention period defined in 55 years.
IVF in menopause and in women with removed ovaries
Pregnancy and its successful bearing is possible in almost all cases, when a woman has a uterus.
Patients aged 40-50 years may also have children. Usually women of this age are turning to IVF forced – if killed a child, late marriages, and so forth. If pregnancy is not contraindicated woman’s health, IVF method can be applied.
During the first trimester of pregnancy is usually accompanied hormone replacement therapy, then it is cancelled and the pregnancy itself.
Complications in IVF
The main complication faced by doctors is multiple pregnancy. In addition, sometimes after the reduction of embryos can develop a miscarriage. Complication of hormonal therapy, which takes place before IVF may be the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. It is manifested by abdominal pain, bloating. When it is detected early can be treated. It is important when any unpleasant feelings during hormonal therapy immediately consult a doctor. Ectopic pregnancy with IVF are rare