Gastroenterology

Liver cirrhosis


Liver cirrhosis - causes, symptoms and treatment

Cirrhosis is a progressive liver disease characterized by the restructuring of the normal structure of the liver, resulting in broken liver function, and development of subsequent liver failure and hypertension.

Causes of cirrhosis of the liver

– Viral hepatitis (b, C, Delta, G). Most cirazoline viruses and Delta, and the hepatitis C virus is called a “silent killer” because it leads to liver cirrhosis in 97% of cases, with long-term disease has no clinical manifestations;
– Autoimmune hepatitis (when the body recognizes its own cells as “foreign”);
– Alcohol abuse, the disease develops in 10-15 years from first use (60 grams/day for men and 20 grams/day for women);
– Metabolic disorders (hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease, Konovalov, deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and other);
– Chemical toxic substances and drugs;
– Hepatotoxic drugs;
– Diseases of biliary tract obstruction (blockage) of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Cirrhosis develops within 3-18 months after impaired patency of the bile duct;
– Long-term venous congestion of the liver (constrictive pericarditis, venooclusive disease, heart failure).

Unfortunately, often the cause of cirrhosis, it is impossible to identify, in this case it is called cryptogenic cirrhosis (i.e., unknown cause).

Symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver

Symptoms of cirrhosis of the liverSigns of cirrhosis, no matter what the reason it was called, but determined by the stage of the disease.

At the initial stage of cirrhosis (international classification of this class And there are no complications.

At this time it is very important to eliminate the cause of the disease, which will allow you to save the remaining healthy tissue of the liver and lead a normal lifestyle. The fact that the liver has a very large regeneration (recovery), and healthy cells can work for themselves and their injured comrades.

The increase in the volume of the stomach, appearance changes from consciousness and behavior, bleeding gums, nosebleeds say about the complications of the disease (international classification of classes b and C).

Complaints made by patients with liver cirrhosis: fatigue, weight loss, and various disorders of consciousness and behavior (poor concentration, daytime sleepiness, impaired night’s sleep, and so on), decreased appetite and abdominal discomfort (bloating, a feeling of saturation during eating), jaundice (staining of the skin, sclera yellow), lightening or discoloration of the feces, dark urine, abdominal pain, swelling of legs and / or an increase in size of the abdomen at the expense of free fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites), bleeding: nasal, gastrointestinal, gums, hemorrhoid, and subcutaneous bleeding, frequent bacterial infections (respiratory ways and others), decreased libido in men is often gynecomastia (breast enlargement).

Along with the increase or decrease the size of the liver is characterized by its seal associated with splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), symptoms of portal hypertension, jaundice. Often dull or aching pain in the liver, increasing after errors in diet and physical work; dyspeptic symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), skin itching, caused by the delay of excretion and accumulation in the tissues of bile acids.
When the patient’s examination revealed typical of cirrhosis, “liver signs: vascular telangiectasias (“stars”, “spiders”) on the skin of the upper half of the body, erythema redness of the palms of the hands (“liver palms”), “painted tongue” crimson, “hepatic language”. Complications of cirrhosis.

Video: Liver cirrhosis – causes, symptoms and treatment

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatic encephalopathy – reversible brain damage toxic products that are not neutralized by the liver as a result of her injuries.
For hepatic encephalopathy characterized by various disorders of consciousness, intelligence, behavior, neuromuscular disorders.

Hepatic encephalopathy is a hidden (invisible to the patient and others), and then it can detect only a doctor with special tests.

The extreme degree of hepatic encephalopathy, coma (unconsciousness), it is based on acute or chronic liver failure.

Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract due to portal hypertension
Cirrhosis of the liver is disturbed by the passage of blood coming from the lower half of the body through the liver, so the blood finds “bypass” path through the vessels of the anterior abdominal wall veins of the esophagus, hemorrhoidal veins (veins of the rectum). With the progression of cirrhosis of the liver at some point comes decompensation and begin bleeding from varices. Every patient with cirrhosis should know that gastrointestinal bleeding is manifested by vomiting, which looks like “coffee grounds” and a chair that looks like a “raspberry jelly”; appears or is rapidly increasing weakness until he lost consciousness. Possible bleeding from the hemorrhoid veins of the rectum.

Infectious complications of cirrhosis of the liver

Patients with cirrhosis of the liver more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections than healthy individuals. Often these patients are infection of the respiratory tract and urinary system. Sometimes it happens that the body temperature can rise without a specific reason. This is due to increased absorption of their bowel harmful (toxic) microorganisms. This condition is called groove toxins.

Cirrhosis of the liver treatment

Cirrhosis of the liver treatmentEstablished cirrhosis is an irreversible condition, but the treatment of the cause of cirrhosis, a good life, a successful impact on the activity of the process can cause cirrhosis of the liver for a long time is compensated.

Prevention of cirrhosis of the liver

Eliminating or limiting the causes of liver cirrhosis (decrease alcohol consumption, vaccination against hepatitis b), early recognition and treatment of chronic hepatitis and fatty liver.

the Treatment of cirrhosis of the liver clinic
Cirrhosis is not a fatal disease, it should and can be treated effectively.
Observation and treatment of patients with cirrhosis of the liver should be performed only in specialized hospitals.

If possible, eliminate the cause of the disease, such as alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver eliminate alcohol with viral cirrhosis prescribe antiviral treatment.
The choice of the optimal treatment regimen for a particular patient can only be done by a doctor.
When conservative (medical) treatment patients included in the waiting list for a liver transplant.

Self-treatment of cirrhosis of the liver
Success in treating a patient with cirrhosis of the liver can be achieved only in case of strict compliance with the advice of a physician. Try to treat cirrhosis of the liver alone is not recommended – this treatment is dangerous.