Like other infectious diseases, measles in children often occurs in autumn-winter and spring, although the diseases are registered in the whole year. And like any infection, measles undermines the body and causes complications, which sometimes are stronger than herself. Moreover, from a week to three, the child can carry this invisible capsule and then get sick. The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets ( when talking, coughing, sneezing ), through the surrounding objects ( toys, utensils ) infection is not transmitted due to the low stability of the virus in the environment.
Yes, measles has matured, so thatís still a misconception about her childishness often leads to late diagnosis and spread of infection in families, schools and other groups. On the other hand, the good news is that children under the age rarely get sick measles due to the small number of contacts and thanks transmitted from mother to immunity. But if the mother was not sick with measles and was not vaccinated against it, an infant under adverse circumstances can get.
Symptoms, treatment of measles
All know that measles is manifested by a rash. But it is only towards the end of the week ( 4-6 day ) baby from head to toe blossoms in pink, but before we can think to guess what it is: the flu? bronchitis? conjunctivitis? intestinal poisoning? Because it really is a little bit of everything. Suddenly the temperature rose to 38-39C, appeared abundant Muco-purulent discharge from the nose, voice cracked, eyelids swollen and reddened, tortured dry compulsive cough. Having pain in the abdomen, liquefied chair, brought toes.
The picture will clarify the children’s doctor, looking into the child’s mouth: grayish-whitish rash the size of a poppy seed on the mucous membrane of the cheeks, the teeth and gums are a sign of measles. Complete the picture typical for this disease spotty rash. It comes in waves: 1 day area of the face and neck, 2-1 – torso and shoulders day 3 – legs and arms. The rash disappears in the same sequence as it comes, leaving traces of their crimes – brown spots. The trouble this time is declining.
However, it is not always measles proceeds as described. Sometimes it stretches and stretches, gathering all the new companions. These evil companions – laryngitis, tracheobronchitis, pneumonia, otitis, stomatitis, encephalitis, polyneuritis and other – cause of adverse outcomes. Usually cope with measles at home, admitted only patients with severe disease or those who do not have proper homes.
In the treatment of measles is very important hygienic maintenance of skin and mucous membranes. Several times a day you need to wash the eyes with warm boiled water or 2% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution, and then 3-4 times a day to bury the solution sulfatsila sodium or vitamin A. the Nose clean with a cotton swab dipped in warm paraffin oil. Dry, chapped lips smeared boric vaseline or grease. In addition, it is necessarily prescribed medication.
Ill need during the entire period of fever to stay in bed, they need to provide a complete, age-appropriate nutrition with a sufficient quantity of liquid ( tea, fruit juices, fruit drinks, liquid, jelly, fruit drinks, and so on ). Easier to tolerate measles patients who underwent previous immunoprophylaxis. Emergency immunoprophylaxis ( when exposed to measles ) is not ill in the past and not vaccinated children aged from 3 months to 4 years by a single intramuscular immunoglobulin ( over – under special conditions ).
The most reliable way to prevent this disease is vaccination live vaccine against measles children at 12-15 months of age followed by a booster in 6 years. Contraindications to vaccination are only acute infectious diseases, blood diseases, organic lesions of the heart during the period of decompensation, acute nephritis, acute rheumatic fever and substring stages.
Vaccination in most cases protects against measles or contributes to facilitating its course, and warns persistent measles virus in the body ( “slow” infection ), which in recent years have linked the development of some chronic diseases of the Central nervous system ( multiple sclerosis ).