Dermatology - diseases of the skin

Melanoma


Melanoma

Malignant melanoma – one of the most malignant human tumors, occurring in any atrasta, often in young adults, slightly more often in women. She is from 0.3 to 1 % of the number of cancer cases. The incidence of melanoma is increasing rapidly in the last few decades and is 2.5-10% of all newly identified skin tumors.

Arises from melanocytes – cells that produce the pigment melanin, so it is in most cases a darker color but may be amelanotic. The most frequently localized in the skin (90%), rarely in the conjunctiva, choroidal layer of the eye, the mucous membrane of the nose, mouth, vagina, rectum.

The background for its occurrence often congenital pigmented spots – nevi, especially re-traumatized when placed on their back, in the area of shoulder girdle, on the feet or exposed parts of the body. More dangerous melanomas developing on the background of acquired pigmented spots detected in patients in adulthood.

Melanoma – pictures, images, photos

Melanoma is a common malignant disease of melanocytes (pigment cells of the skin), often occurs in the skin, rarely mucous membranes. In recent years, the incidence of melanoma is increasing. Melanoma accounts for 4% of all cancers in men and 3% in women. It should also be noted that the disease “younger”, i.e. if earlier the disease is more frequent in people after the age of 50 years, now the borders have shifted to a younger age. Currently this disease is the second most common malignant disease among women aged 25-29 years, the first place breast cancer in women aged 30-35 years. The incidence of melanoma continues to rise faster than any other cancer, increased mortality, this disease takes 2nd place after lung cancer.

General information about melanoma

Melanoma is a common malignant disease. The disease is potentially curable with early detection and treatment. It should be noted that as soon as the fashion for tanned body, went up and morbidity, especially Hobbies Solarium. Of course it is clear that in our climatic zone of the sun is not enough. but remember that everything should be in moderation.This can be especially true with 1 and 2 skin type( people with light eyes, hair, redhead, freckles). Distinguish the following types of melanoma:

Superficially spreading melanoma (70% of cases)- often affects women, is characterized by horizontal growth and in General has a favorable prognosis;

Nodular melanoma (15%)- affects both men and women equally.is characterized by the growth in thickness of the skin is considered the most unfavorable in terms of prognosis.

Akralnyh lentiginosa(10%)- also known as subungual melanoma. Grows also on the fingertips, palms. Fast-growing;

Malignant lentigo (5-10%)- equally defeat both men and women, usually in the elderly.Develops on areas of skin i.e. face, neck, hands;

Amalonaticus melanoma (7%)- amelanotic (colorless) melanoma. Looks like a harmless increasing rose red papule (lace up), as if the bite of the insect.

Video: Melanoma – treatment, causes and symptoms

Types of melanoma

Melanoma of the retina

Lentiginosa mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity,mouth,perianal(anus) and vulvovaginal area (vulva)— 1 % of the total number of melanomas.Manifested in the form of uneven pigmentation.

Muligatawny melanoma soft tissue grows on the ligaments and aponeuroses . It occurs in all age groups, including children and adolescents.

Symptoms of melanoma

Types and symptoms of melanoma30 % melanoma develop within a pre-existing nevus (pigmented education), the remaining 70% are formed in a new place. You should be alerted, the following changes nevus and/or newly found education:

Asymmetry – one half is not like the other, perhaps with one hand faster growth.

random shape – the border is jagged, uneven,patterned.

Color variations – blotches of different colors and white, and pink, and brown, and black, and blue.

Diameter greater than 6 mm, is measured along the longest axis of the hearth.

Early, but rare symptom is itch, but most cases are asymptomatic.

Late symptoms include pain, bleeding, ulceration.

Causes and risk factors for melanoma

The reason melanoma is uncertain.

But the known risk factors :

  • light skin, blue eyes, freckles, blond or red hair;
  • sunburns (especially in childhood or adolescence);
  • the age of 50 years, although perhaps earlier to occur;
  • heredity (melanoma in close relatives);
  • excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, including Solarium;
  • border nevi (flat and slightly raised spots). If you are on the palms, genitals and the mucous membrane, are dangerous (frontier), because you can go in melanoma.

Prevention of melanoma

Remember the rule ABCD and FIGARO. If You have doubts, do not hesitate, go to dermatooncology.

Remember a simple rule of tanning:

  • optimal and harmless time to retire before 11 am and after 16 hours;
  • use a cream with photosamity (especially in hot countries), applied this cream every 2 hours, whether You swim or not. It is recommended to apply the cream 30 minutes before bathing;
  • not it is desirable to use perfumes, since some components can cause burns;
  • drink more water, because in the heat of the body is severely dehydrated;
  • it is advisable not to sleep in the sun
  • you can eat anything salty;
  • remember. some medications have a photosensitizing effect (i.e., sensitivity to sunlight intensifies, you may burn), eg. tetracyclines (antibiotics).

Complications of melanoma

The main complication when melanoma is metastasis (i.e., spread and defeat other of organs and tissues).

the Melanoma is distributed through the blood vessels (hematogenous route),the metastases can settle anywhere in the body,the liver, lungs, bone, brain; as well as the lymphatic system, affects the lymph nodes.

If the mole is in a place of constant friction, and You constantly touch it, it may bleed, grow rapidly, ulcerate (better to remove them).

Self-medication in the form of a ligature thread, cutting with a razor or scissors, can lead to unpredictable results!

Diagnosis of melanoma

Diagnosis and treatment of melanomaYou should be alerted if mole occur following changes:

  • the shape is convex, raised above the skin, it is better seen with side lighting.
  • resize, the acceleration of growth is one of the most important attributes.
  • borders wrong, “rugged” edges.
  • asymmetry – half of the mole does not like each other.
  • size of largest tumor diameter greater than the diameter of the handle.
  • color is uneven blotches of brown, gray, black, pink, white areas.

With Dermatoscope (a special microscope, which makes the stratum corneum (i.e., the surface) transparent, and you can see whether the malignant mole.

But the final diagnosis is made only after histological examination (when a suspicious mole cut out a section of healthy skin and look under the microscope the tissue sections).

Treatment of melanoma

Melanoma excised surgically, with the capture of healthy skin about 2-3 cm, together with subcutaneous fat and muscle.

Other treatment methods include: radiation therapy, immunotherapy, laser ablation, cryosurgery.

Remember that melanoma is potentially curable with early detection and treatment.