Cardiology

Myocardial Infarction


Myocardial infarction causes, symptoms and treatment of heart attack

Myocardial infarction is known as a dangerous disease, taking away human life. No wonder the man, upsetting their words or actions, they say “To a heart attack will bring”. This saying reflects one of the characteristics of the infarct – its development can provoke strong emotional feelings and stress. Physical strain is also among the “provocateurs”. However, most often the heart begins in the morning, after waking up, when the transition from night to day activity provides increased heart load.

But not everyone is worrying, working, or a waking man clutches his heart. What is a heart attack and why it happens?

What is a myocardial infarction?

Every second man and every third woman meet with ischemic heart disease and its most severe manifestation of a myocardial infarction. What we know about it?

Myocardial infarction is a severe form of coronary heart disease. It occurs when stops the blood supply to any Department of the cardiac muscle. If the blood supply is disrupted for 15-20 minutes or more, the “starving” part of the heart dies. This site destruction (necrosis) of cardiac cells and is called myocardial infarction. Blood flow to the appropriate Department of the cardiac muscle is disrupted when atherosclerotic plaque, located in the lumen of one of the vessels of the heart, the load is destroyed and the damaged spot is formed a blood clot (thrombus). The person feels unbearable pain behind the breastbone, which is not removed by taking even a few tablets of nitroglycerin in a row.

How dangerous myocardial infarction, eloquently evidenced by the statistics. Of all patients with acute myocardial infarction prior to arrival at the hospital survives only half, and this percentage is almost the same for countries with different levels of emergency medical care. Of those who were in the hospital another third die before discharge due to development of fatal complications. And after a heart attack in its place on all life there is a scar, a kind of scar on the heart muscle.

Recent myocardial infarction rapidly “younger”. Now not uncommon when it affects people, barely over a thirty-year threshold. However, in women younger than 50 years infarction is rare. Before this turn of their vessels are protected from atherosclerosis, estrogen and other sex hormones. But with the onset of menopause women, conversely, get sick more often than men.

Causes heart attack

Main reason the risk of heart attack is atherosclerosis, which is almost everyone. In addition, we call life circumstances (and depending on us, and not), in which the probability of getting the most high:
What is a myocardial infarction

  • male;
  • for women of a dangerous age after 50 years;
  • heredity (ischemic heart disease, heart attack, stroke, at least one of the direct relatives: parents, grandparents, brothers, sisters, especially if the disease they started to 55 years);
  • elevated levels of blood cholesterol (>5 mmol/l or more than 200 mg/DL);
  • smoking (one of the most significant risk factors!);
  • overweight and sedentary lifestyle;
  • increased blood pressure.(more than 140/90 mm Hg at any age);
  • diabetes.

The presence of at least one of these factors increases the risk of “Dating” with myocardial infarction. With the accession of each new risk factor increases the probability of getting exponentially.

They also say that male pattern baldness is a kind of precursor to a heart attack, because one of the factors for the appearance of baldness is an increased level of androgens, and in the case of hormonal fluctuations in the body reacts to the change in the content of hormones rise in blood pressure and increased cholesterol levels in the blood.

Signs of myocardial infarction

Atherosclerosis is a process in which the wall of large arteries deposited some fats (cholesterol and other lipids), if they are in excess contained in the blood. Those places on the vascular wall, where the lipid accumulations especially a lot, called atherosclerotic plaques. Plaque is the most vulnerable place in the vascular wall. Especially if she is young and has not had time to secede calcium. At the most unexpected moment wall plaques, and hence the inner shell of the arteries of the heart can crack grub. For the body of this alarm. Crack it tends to heal a blood clot. Therefore, the damaged area immediately congealing blood. A blood clot reminds barreling down a snowball. If it doesn’t harm the blood clot is growing very fast, until you cover the entire lumen of the artery. Then the blood flow through it stops, starts cell death and evolving myocardial infarction. The larger the artery, which closed the thrombus, the greater the myocardial cells will die.

A heart attack may begin during severe physical or emotional stress, but often it develops for no apparent reason, as if from scratch. Perhaps even in his sleep. But the most “favorite” of his time – early in the morning.

Depending on the magnitude of the attacks are divided into strong, in which the necrosis extends over the entire thickness of the heart muscle, and small. More dangerous strong infarction of the anterior wall infarction. When a heart attack in the rear or side walls, especially small (not full thickness), its consequences are not so traumatic. The scar on the heart muscle remains for life. To dissolve it, and about previous heart attack heart “remembers” always.

Symptoms and diagnosis of heart attack

Symptoms and diagnosis of heart attackThe first sign to suspect a heart attack, is usually severe pain in the chest, in the middle of the chest. Usually at rest; presses, burns, compresses, can give in the arm, shoulder, back, jaw, neck. Angina like pain occurs during exercise, and at heart she is stronger and more starts at rest and is not taken after each other 3 nitroglycerin tablets (1 tablet under the tongue every 5 minutes).

If you see these signs, immediately call an Ambulance. The ability to endure in this case is a dangerous enemy. Sometimes the disease manifests itself by vomiting or unpleasant sensations in the abdomen, irregular heart or breathing difficulties, loss of consciousness, or… nothing.

Yes, it does happen: a man suffered a heart attack, without even noticing. The so-called painless form of myocardial infarction is more likely to occur in people suffering from diabetes. Changes in the heart are clearly visible in electrocardiogram. To clarify the scope and extent of injury can be assigned to ultrasound of the heart (echocardiography), which gives the opportunity to see structural changes. In some cases, the doctor may recommend conducting scintigraphy.

Treatment of heart attack

To avoid the risk, at the least suspected heart attack, the doctors send the person to the emergency Department of the hospital. And the sooner the better. It is only during the first few hours, requiring special preparations, it is possible to dissolve a fresh clot and restore blood flow in coronary arteries. Then it is necessary to prevent the formation of new blood clots. To do this, use medications that slow blood clotting. One of the most reliable means is acetylsalicylic acid, a common aspirin. It reduces the number of complications and prolongs the life of people who have had a heart attack.

Often used in the treatment of beta-blockers. These drugs reduce requirement of a myocardium in oxygen, and thus save heart muscle cells from destruction, reduce the size of the necrosis. At the same time they make the heart more efficient that when a heart attack is very important.

In recent years, for treatment of heart attack is used not only medicines. In particular, the so-called invasive methods include coronary balloon angioplasty. Angioplasty demonstrated the ineffectiveness of drug therapy. In another case, the surgeon may suggest an operation coronary artery bypass surgery.

Treatment of heart attackIn the early days of mandatory bed rest. At this time, the damaged heart can not withstand even minimal exertion. Before the man suffered a heart attack, did not rise from his bed for several weeks. Today the term bed rest significantly reduced. But still, at least three days after a heart attack they have to lie in bed under the supervision of doctors. Then allowed to sit, later to stand, walk… Begins recovery, adaptation to the new life.

Rehabilitation after a heart attack

Is it possible after a heart attack to return to the familiar life is to say “Yes” or “no” can’t even datora. After all, it each has its own: one works as a loader, and the other spends his days writing Desk. The first will be hard to do usual activities, and second there is little that will stop. In addition, complications, and heart attacks are different.

Recovery after a heart attack, stretches for several months. Because the disease is not humorous, it requires to rethink their way of life, something to change. Rehabilitation begins in the hospital, where along with prema drugs and the passage of physiotherapy gradually increasing the intensity of physical exercises. (Special note – the word “gradually”). In any case, do not force events. Physical therapy sessions, the first walk on a level surface, then on the stairs… by the Way, this ladder is a good test for readiness for active life. If the patient can average to climb to the fourth floor, without chest pain or shortness of breath, then the recovery is successful. For a more accurate assessment often use the sample of metered load. It is usually performed on a special bike – the bike or the treadmill”.

How long to take medication? There is just one answer: a lifetime! Even if you feel fine. Precisely because it is beautiful that is constantly taking drugs help your heart.

Can I have sex after a heart attack? Shamelessly ask this question to the doctor. Everything will depend on how you carry physical activity (and the sexual act is the load, and considerable). But there are two General rules to keep in mind that sexual contact ended happy, but not a new heart attack. First, it must occur with a familiar partner, secondly, in familiar surroundings, and thirdly, choosing a position for sexual intercourse, it is necessary to choose such that the load is minimal – for example, on the side.

Prevention of myocardial infarction

Prevention of myocardial infarctionSome risk factors (gender and heredity) nowhere to go. But all the rest are quite amenable to our efforts!

1.Maintain normal blood pressure, and watch the weather – for example, for people with high blood pressure are dangerous heat and geomagnetic storms.

Normalize the blood sugar levels.

2.Move more! Not necessarily “run from a heart attack”, it is enough to walk in the fresh air at least 5-6 miles a day.

3.It is very important to quit Smoking is one of the most “aggressive” risk factors.

4.Try to lose weight. What should be a normal weight? Let’s do the math: your weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. The resulting number is called the body mass index. You need to strive to ensure that it does not exceed 26. Food must be with a minimum content of animal fats and cholesterol. More fruits and vegetables. Instead of fatty pork, white meat poultry, butter substitute sunflower, fat – fish. Such a diet helps to reduce not only cholesterol, but also the cost.