Nebulized is a special portable device for inhalation are produced industrially. They are called nebulizers. By the way, the name “Nebulizer” is derived from the word “nebula”, which from Latin translates as cloud or fog. With their help liquid medicinal substance, medical solutions under the influence of compressed air are transformed into aerosols or cold vapor (fog), which are sprayed in the upper and lower respiratory tract.
A nebulizer has become an indispensable portable device for the treatment of acute and chronic diseases of the respiratory system, including virtually all inflammatory diseases, ranging from laryngitis and pharyngitis, pneumonia to the lungs and also bronchial asthma and tuberculosis. But for the treatment of most upper respiratory tract nebulizers are not effective enough, why they are not often used in the treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis, sore throats in children and other diseases of the nasopharynx.
We often get questions about whether there is any difference between nebulizer and inhaler. Actually no, because a nebulizer is an inhaler. That’s just inhalers can often be called special sprays with medications, which are used for the asthmatics. But after you use this medication canister to fill the substance will not succeed. A nebulizer is a versatile nebulizer for children and adults.
Field of therapeutic effect nebulizers depending on the dispersion of the aerosol
Nebulizers convert drug solutions into aerosols, in which micro-particles of a substance have a size in diameter from 1 to 10 microns. And the smaller these particles are, the further into the respiratory tract they can do. For example, the aerosol particle size of 1-2 microns are able to reach the alveolar system of the lungs and the large particles 10 or more microns are deposited mainly in the nasopharynx.
We will give more detailed data according to the size of particles of aerosols and respiratory system plots on which they can act:
- 8-10 microns – cavity of the mouth;
- 5-8 microns, the upper respiratory tract: nasopharynx, throat;
- 3-5 microns – the trachea and bronchi;
- 1-3 microns – bronchioles
- 0.5 to 2 μm in the alveoli.
A nebulizer is able to adjust the size of aerosol particles by means of special nozzles to adjust the range of drug delivery to the lesion with inflammatory process. The smaller the particle, the further it can penetrate through the respiratory tract. But you should know that very small aerosol particles penetrate far though, passing through the upper respiratory system, but they are not very effective for the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the larynx and trachea.
Diseases that cures nebulizer
Each of us has an idea of what is needed inhalations. Their main role is the treatment of respiratory diseases. While using modern inhalers perform the following tasks, very important in the treatment of respiratory diseases:
- eliminate spasm of the bronchial tubes;
- strengthening the drainage function of the respiratory tract;
- to be used in all divisions of the respiratory system;
- eliminate swelling of the mucous of the larynx, trachea and bronchi;
- anti-inflammation; delivery of aerosol medicine to the most remote areas of the respiratory system – the alveoli
- toning local immune responses;
- normalization of microcirculation in the mucosa of the respiratory tract;
- prevention and protection from exposure to allergens.
As you can see from the above list, inhalers cope with many tasks and are used in the treatment of almost all diseases of the respiratory tract.
Contraindications for nebulizer
Despite the fact that the inhalation method is very effective in the treatment of diseases of bodies of breath, there are a number of contraindications that restrict the use of nebulizers. These diseases include:
- hypertension III degree;
- giant cavities in the lungs;
- respiratory failure III degree;
- individual intolerance of drugs used for inhalation;
- lung, epistaxis, prone;
- early postinfarction and post-stroke period;
- cardiac arrhythmia and failure;
- spontaneous pneumothorax because of bullous emphysema;
- body temperature exceeding 37,5°C;
- cerebral arteriosclerosis, complicated by disorders of cerebral circulation.
Types of nebulizers
We have already mentioned that nebulisers can turn a medicinal solution into a cold vapor or a mist with desired size of aerosol particles. Nebulisers are without drawbacks steam inhalers, although their price is much higher.
Are separately identified the steam inhalers.
Each of them has its own application range, advantages and disadvantages, which we examine in more detail. After all, nothing perfect exists in the world. And according to the characteristics it will be possible to decide which inhaler is best for the child.
We can say that the best inhaler for children and adults is not a device of any known brand, which are sold at a very high price. The best inhaler will be the one that will fully meet all the requirements of the consumer.
Steam nebulizer – advantages and disadvantages
There are several types of nebulizers for adults and children, as mentioned above. But first we stop at the simplest that has been used for a long time, steam inhaler, so immediately we were able to conduct a comparative analysis and to outline the benefits of modern inhalers before the old is essentially a steam inhaler. It is very important to understand how to choose the right inhaler for your child.
Many decades and even centuries in the treatment of colds and inflammatory diseases was used a primitive steam inhaler, which were constructed from available tools. Hot water was poured in some capacity, a sick man covered with towel and breathe the hot vapors, which contained infusions and decoctions of medicinal plants and essential oils.
Then this method is minimally modernized, when used as a steam inhaler usual kettle, in a sock which is inserted a tube of cardboard or heavy paper, through which the patient breathed and hot vapours of the medicinal solution. This method is best suited to warm the upper respiratory tract, softening of the mucous nasopharynx and trachea.
But this “home” design steam inhaler for children not suitable, because it is able to cause severe burns of the mucous of the respiratory system and skin the kid who is still not able to control the process of breathing, especially hot air. But to avoid such troubles is quite possible, if you use the modern steam inhalers that are equipped with a device regulating the steam and temperature, but also have several attachments, including those designed specifically for children.
This inhaler can be inhalation to a child cough, runny nose, etc., because using it can not only treat inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, but also to strengthen the immune system and increase the body’s resistance to harmful environmental factors. Steam inhalers improve blood circulation, strengthen nervous, urinogenital, endocrine system and overall body tone.
By the way, well proven steam inhalers, in cosmetics, because it is able to effectively clean the pores of the skin, rejuvenating it from the inside.
However, use in the treatment steam inhaler is prohibited if the body temperature of the patient exceeds 37,5 OS. Moreover, when heated, not all medications are able to maintain their healing properties, because most of the medicinal substances is destroyed. As a result, the content of medicinal active substances in the pair has a very low. And to make the child breathe the warm mist is extremely problematic.
Although warm steam helps a baby to cough, he softens the breathing. But when using steam inhalers for children there is a big risk “to let” the infection into the most distant divisions of the bronchopulmonary system, which is fraught with the development of the child’s bronchitis, bronchiolitis or even pneumonia.
Steam inhalers have a low cost and availability that attracts buyers. But no steam inhaler is not able to deliver a drug aerosol in the lower divisions of the bronchopulmonary system.
Ultrasonic nebulizer – advantages and disadvantages
Nebulizers Ultrasonic using ultrasonic vibrations “shake” the medicinal solution, turning them into a mist (aerosol). This type of nebulation has maximum efficiency. These devices are virtually silent in use and have compact sizes.
Often the complete set of ultrasonic nebulizers include batteries that allow them to apply to any “camp” conditions. Ultrasonic nebulizer are perfect for children, they are safe and easy to use.
But they also have their drawbacks. Not all medicinal substances can be used in these inhalers, because ultrasound is able to destroy them, in particular, hormones, expectorants, or antibiotics. With this inhaler you can make inhalations with medicinal herbal teas, essential oils, inhalations with mineral water, soda, alkaline inhalations. But keep in mind that not all ultrasonic nebulizers use of herbal decoctions, and of solutions containing ether, oils, or suspensions (including essential oils). In many of them the use of such substances is strictly prohibited! Always carefully read the instructions before use, each individual inhaler.
When using the inhaler of this type is necessary to use many accessories, for example, gels or containers for medical drugs, which can be attributed to its “cons”.
The above features do not allow to call ultrasonic inhalers generic. However, the reviews about ultrasonic inhalers used to children, mostly positive. The silent nature of operation of the inhaler allows it to be used for this procedure during sleep of the child or in the form of a game that is perceived by children is very exciting and interesting.
Usually the average duration of treatment for inhalation of the ultrasonic nebulizer is about 15 minutes, during which the drug microparticles of the aerosol are sprayed on the inflamed surface of the respiratory tract. The average flow rate of the medicinal solution is 1 ml per minute, while it contained 0.5 ml of the drug.
Compressor nebulizer – advantages and disadvantages
Compressor nebulisers are often called jet. They have some similarities with their ultrasonic counterparts in performance. However, compressor nebulizer for children and adults has several large dimensions and weight. It is more noisy, because the basis of this device is the compressor, which creates a powerful stream of air.
But this type of nebulizer does not require to perform inhalations purchase additional accessories, however, may require replacement after 1-2 years hollow connecting tubes and nozzles. This inhalation system is very reliable, and this is an important advantage. Moreover, this nebulizer is very convenient to use at home.
The undoubted advantage of this inhaler is the fact that in practice he shows his nepriveredliv in the use of different medicinal solutions, which are not destroyed during the inhalation session. Besides all mentioned, the advantage of this nebulizer is its relatively low price.
This nebulizer produces freely “humanitarian” almost all of drugs without disturbing their structure. And among all types of nebulizers compression inhaler for children is considered the most optimal, acceptable and popular because it can be used literally from birth. Doctors recommend the use of this inhaler for children up to years practically without any restrictions.
The nebulizer creates a fine aerosol, which penetrate into the most distant divisions of the respiratory system using low pressure. The greater the inspiratory flow, the more intense will increase the rate of formation of aerosol. Thus, compressor inhalers can be activated by using the breath (automatically) or using a special valve that blocks the air flow. The first type of nebulizer is very convenient in the treatment of expensive drugs, to follow strict dosing treatment solution and monitor its consumption.
Inhalation using compression nebulizer used for relief of attacks of bronchial asthma, allergic cough and treatment of inflammatory diseases of the bronchopulmonary system.
Membrane nebulizer – advantages and disadvantages
This type of nebulizer in practice has several names – mesh nebulizer, electronic-mesh or mesh nebulizer. The name was associated with it a single structural component – a vibrating plate or membrane, which has a large number of tiny holes through which the formation of a medicinal aerosol, when the medicinal solution passes through it. Passing through a “sieve” water droplets crushed to microscopic particles forming the medicinal fog.
When using the inhaler diaphragm will require very small doses of the drug, significantly saving its consumption. In comparison with their analogues, or ultrasonic compression inhalers not to mention steam inhaler, spray and settling of particles during the application of the mesh nebulizer is very high.
To undoubted advantages of mesh nebulizers can be attributed to their compact size, small weight, quiet during operation, the efficiency of the flow of drugs, low power consumption, possibility of using batteries. Mesh nebulizer can be used for children of almost all kinds of medicines without disturbing their healing power. Therapeutic efficacy for a mesh nebulizer is very high.
But without the drawbacks of this seemingly ideal inhaler has not done. MES-nebulizer has a fairly high cost and requires very careful maintenance, and careful use. If not observed the mode and technique of flushing of the membrane, the drying and other operations, this handset can very soon get out of order.
But if you don’t consider these two drawbacks, this type of nebulizer can be called ideal, especially because the mesh nebulizer is recommended for use in the treatment of children for whom this procedure often presents great difficulties.
At what age can you use nebulizer
Children very often have catarrhal diseases of the respiratory system, therefore becomes a very relevant question on the application in the treatment of inhalation systems, particularly portable, which you can apply at home.
Earlier the possibility of using a steam inhaler or their likeness for kids was a very problematic issue. There was a great probability of burns of the respiratory tract mucosa, and the technique itself, especially if it was carried out with the help of improvised means, was unsafe. But with the advent of modern nebulizers treatment strategy has changed radically.
Now safe and very effective inhalers can be used to treat even infants, virtually from the cradle. Moreover, nebulisers can be used even in such cases, when the reduced inspiratory flow, which is observed in children of early age, patients with severe somatic diseases and postoperative patients.
How to choose the best nebulizer for your child
Now the question arises, how to choose inhaler to the child, because in the market there are many types and models of nebulizers. Tactics of choosing the most appropriate inhaler includes a lot of chances. But the most important point in the choice of the device must be compliance with certain inhaler goals.
But first you need to remember that for effective inhalation of the respiratory tract in child, the diameter of the aerosol particles should be 2 to 7 microns. The diameter of the particles is optimal for the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system kids. These requirements correspond most closely with ultrasonic and compressor inhalers. But there may be other problems, why can we have to bow down to choice and other types of inhalers.
Not recommended for use in the treatment of children steam inhalers. In them the steam is heated to 37.5 degrees, which is unacceptable for use by children of younger age group, besides, many medicines are destroyed by heating, for example, antibiotics, expectorants and hormonal agents.
If the inhaler is necessary for cupping of allergic cough and asthma, and in case of detection of cystic fibrosis (for children highly unlikely), then fall away steam and ultrasonic nebulisers, because they cannot be used for medicinal solutions steroids. An important condition for asthmatics is the portability of the inhaler, the possibility of its use in the transport and away from the outlet. By the way, the ultrasonic nebulizer is not suitable for antibiotic treatment.
But if you use the inhaler only provides for the use of saline solution for inhalation, medicinal herbal teas, essential oils and mineral water, then the best option would be an ultrasonic device.
In all other cases, when the choice of which inhaler to buy the child, it is better to stay on compressive nebulizer, although excellent characteristics are available with membrane or mesh of the nebulizer. However, the last option is very expensive, also it requires constant and careful grooming. Of course, if parents are willing to spend large funds for its purchase and carefully care for it, this would be the best option.
From the above we can say that compression nebulizer for children claims to be the most preferred, but it is quite noisy, which sometimes scares kids.
When choosing a particular model of nebulizer note, he stocked children’s mask, which has the slit-valves for breathing that enables him freely, without strain to breathe. You can just put on the mask of the child and let him watch a favorite cartoon, while breathing is not extensive, and to free him.
In addition, pay attention to the expiration date, the higher it is, the more reliable the instrument. Carefully review the method of disinfection, specify, will I have to replace any parts in the instrument.
How to teach a child not to be afraid nebulizer
Children are very afraid of noisy inhalers-nebulisers, especially if you are using a compressor model. Although ultrasonic and mesh nebulizers work silently, most small children categorically refuse to inhaled treatments. You have to go to the trick, buying naughty young patients inhalers in the form of toys.
In the pharmacy network for children can be found inhalers-toys variety of bright colors that makes a child interested in this device and to enable the inhalation session. It can be an inhaler-a small train for children, penguin, Panda inhaler, etc. medical devices These toys can make interesting sounds, bright flashing, which makes treatment in an entertaining game.
Take, for example, such model as an inhaler for children OMRON, which belongs to the compression models, but does not generate much noise, which frightens the children. It can be equipped with original accessories children’s toys – rabbit and bear, it is very light and compact.
But most importantly, while the child is distracted the toy on the nebulizer, he works very effectively thanks to the technology of virtual valves. This children’s nebulizer OMRON forms a micro-particle aerosol size of 3 microns that allows to reorganise the farthest parts of the respiratory tract.
Models of children’s nebulizers many, but the parents buying these frivolous devices, at first glance, you must carefully review their configuration, technical characteristics and to evaluate the quality and safety of all items, and explore all the reviews for different variants of inhalers for children.
How does a nebulizer?
In the pharmacy network there are many types and models of nebulizers, all of them has similar structure. The structure of the inhaler includes a main unit that generates a jet of air which creates the necessary medicinal aerosol dispersion. In the main camera unit is in the form of a plastic Cup with a volume of 5-10 ml, which is filled with drug solution.
In the tank is a valve with two outputs, one of which leads to the device, and the second is the output. To this opening is attached a tube, mouthpiece or mask, which is supplied in an aerosol medium, and low dispersions.
Krupnorazmernye solutions leading to rapid breakdown of the apparatus and reduce the effectiveness of treatment.
The composition of nebulizers can include special mouthpieces, children’s mask, the nozzle for the nose sprays, the mouthpiece.
Methods of supply of medicinal aerosol in the nebulizer
Depending on the model of the nebulizer and its structural features, flow of medicinal aerosol in the respiratory tract can be performed using the following methods:
- feed inhalation solution is carried out continuously throughout the session, leading to erratic flow of medicinal substance, the inability to accurately adjust the dose of medication used;
- feed inhalation solution is adjusted manually by the patient with the help of a special button that turns off the inhalation to the exhalation, the breath that helps just to use the cure, but greatly tiring the patient, why absolutely not suitable for baby use;
- feed inhalation solution is performed automatically depending on the inhalation and exhalation with the help of a special system of valves that help regulate and conserve the dose of the medication.
The last way to feed the inhalation aerosol is most appropriate for the treatment of the child. However, these models are fairly costly inhaler that is their drawback. But if the conversation is for children, the inhaler for cough treatment will be the most convenient.
How to use nebulizer
Before you use the inhaler to destination for children, first need to carefully study the manual to avoid mistakes that result in either equipment damage or reduce the effectiveness of inhaled treatment. The technique of using different types of nebulizers may be slightly different, but the similarities of the use of this device still exists.
In the capacity of inhaler you need to pour the medicinal substance which is dissolved in 0.9% physiological solution of sodium chloride in a 1:1 ratio. For a single session only takes 3-6 milliliters. It is important to remember that for dissolving drugs cannot be used boiled or distilled water, saline. In addition, in no case do not try to just crush the pill and stir it in the solution. In nebulisers are added only to the drug solutions for inhalation that are sold in the network.
Then the inhaler is closed, and the outlet attached mask or mouthpiece, after which the device turns on and the session is held in an open valve for 5-20 minutes, until the solution no longer converted into aerosol. In this mode the aerosol particles are formed with diameters between 2 and 10 microns, if the plugs are close, the dispersion of particles is reduced to 0.5-2 microns. This mode is considered an economical and faster, it helps to capture the most remote areas of the bronchial tree.
Video: Nebulizer – How to Use
Breathing during inhalation should be free, normal, because of the amplified sighs, can trigger coughing and cause irritation of the respiratory tract.
At the end of the session, the nebulizer is switched off, disconnected from the compressor. All components that had contact with a medical solution and oral cavity of the patient is carefully rinsed in hot water with disinfectant and a cleaning solution. After that these parts are rinsed and dried with a soft cloth or even a Hairdryer.
By the way, even the longest procedure inhalation will not be able to fully use the medicinal solution. Always remains a residual volume of 1 milliliter.
What medicinal substances cannot be used in nebulizers
Often you can hear that in the nebulizers can be used virtually all medicinal substances that are necessary for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic diseases. Theoretically this is true, but in practice there are limitations.
This is due to the fact that not all drugs can remain in the respiratory tract in full. The mucosa of the bronchi and the alveoli is so rich in capillaries, and aerosol inhalers are so fine that some medicinal substances will get into the circulatory system.
By the way, this fact suggests that it is not necessary to specifically seek to ensure that particles inhaled aerosol were as small as possible. Fine aerosol not captured on the walls of the bronchi and penetrate much further and deeper – into the alveoli, where it quickly absorbed the blood, causing local effect of the drug becomes worthless.
Although it is written that you can use herbal teas, but judging by the reviews, when using the inhaler-nebulizer with such solutions may occur in children quite the opposite effect – a severe allergic reaction. Still, the herb is a powerful allergen, and properly dosing very difficult. Therefore, the herb need to be very careful.
In the instructions it is written that the nebulizers you can use essential oils, but they are great for the treatment of the nasopharynx, and not the lungs. Oil lubrication of the alveoli will only hurt and will not bring any benefit to the child.
For nebulizers only need to use special solutions that are sold in the pharmacy network, you can not try to crush tablets into powder, and then dissolved them in water and use for inhalation. This is strictly forbidden!
Never use for cultivation of medicinal substances, boiled, distilled water and hypotonic solutions with low salt content. It is necessary to apply only a 0.9% physiological solution of sodium chloride. This is due to the fact that hypotonic solutions are absorbed immediately by the mucosa, causing its swelling powerful.
Now let us list those drugs that should be avoided for use in all types of inhalers in the treatment of children:
- Diphenhydramine, Aminophylline, Platifillin, Papaverine, because of the local effect they do not show;
- solutions with essential oils, which can damage the membrane of mesh nebulizers and useful only for the treatment of diseases of the nasopharynx;
- herbal tinctures, decoctions and infusions because of a high risk of overdose and clogging of the nebulizer;
- system hormones Hydrocortisone, Prednisolone, Deksazon, which does not have a sufficient local effect.
Recommended medications for use in nebulizers
There is a list of drugs and substances that are recommended for inhalations for cough using nebulizer. For example, in the inhalers it is recommended the use of saline and mineral water, but water must be free of gas bubbles and heat.
Prepared drug substance for inhalation are sold in the pharmacy network, they are often called nebulae. Medicines for the nebulizer used in the treatment of children is part of the following list of drugs:
- anesthetics – Lidocaine;
- antibiotics – Gentamicin, Fluimucil, Tobramycin;
- bronchodilators – Atrovent, Astalin, berotek, Ventolin, Magnesium sulfate, Salbutamol, Salgim, Salamol, Fenoterol;
- hormonal medications – Pulmicort or Budesonide, Bromohexyl;
- immunomodulating agents – Interferon leukocyte dry;
- mucolytics – Ambroxol, Ambroxol, Lasolvan, Pulmozyme, Acetylcysteine, Fluimucil, hypertonic solution
- phytotherapy – Rotokan;
- combination medications Fenoterol, Berodual inhalations.
This complex is allowed to conduct children inhaled drugs is sufficient in order to fight effectively against inflammatory and allergic diseases in the comprehensive scheme of their treatment.
But the most important thing you need to remember that independently experiment with the choice of drugs, especially for children, in no event it is impossible. Only your doctor can choose the correct treatment regimen and to indicate how drugs for inhalation can be used in each case.
Is it Possible to use a nebulizer for the treatment of rhinitis in children?
Nebulisers all types are intended for the treatment of diseases of ENT organs and respiratory tract just in General. If inhalation is possible to treat pharyngitis, laryngitis, tracheitis and bronchitis, so why not try to cure a runny nose in a child with a portable inhaler.
In this case we are not talking about the inhaler-spray for children, nasal, and on the application of the present nebulizer. For the treatment using a nebulizer to be effective, the particle size of the aerosol must be quite large – about 10 microns, so that the medicinal substance was deposited on the mucosa of the nasopharynx, in particular, nasal cavity, and no deeper.
In addition, the inhaler must be provided with special children’s masks or nasal cannula. For rhinitis may be suitable inhalers of different models. For example, for the ultrasonic nebulizer can be the solution add drops of essential oils, and compression and mesh nebulisers spray can of antiseptic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Steam inhaler successfully thins the mucus, which allows easier release of the nasal cavity.
Besides, by using inhalers to treat runny nose in children is much easier than drip them, the drops drain into the nose, bypassing the nasal cavity. And the children do not like nasal drops.
Important before starting the treatment, carefully read the manual to this inhaler for children to understand how to use them, not to hurt the child but to help that the disease is cured as soon as possible.