The most common disease leading to a gradual narrowing or complete blockage of the lumen of the aorta and major arteries, gradually turning into atherosclerosis.
In addition to chronic arterial insufficiency caused by such diseases as obliterans and non-specific aortoarteritis. Despite the different nature of these diseases, they all manifest the syndrome of chronic ischemia (lack of inflow of oxygen-rich arterial blood) limbs or internal organs.
Causes of diseases of the arteries
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease, which is based on degenerative changes of the vascular wall with the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on its surface and narrowing of the lumen of the vessel in this area. Risk factors of atherosclerosis is Smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, disorders of lipid metabolism, poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyle.
Symptoms of peripheral artery disease
In the early stages of the typical complaints of increased susceptibility to low temperatures, sensitivity to cold extremities, numbness, paresthesias (tingling) and fatigue affected limb.
The main symptom of obliterating diseases of lower limb arteries is intermittent claudication. It is the appearance when walking rather sharp pain that is felt in a certain group of muscles and forcing the patient to stop moving. This is due to insufficient arterial blood flow to meet the needs of the muscles during exercise. After a short rest, the pain ceases, and the patient can go a certain distance. Depending on the distance, which overcomes the patient before pain symptoms, there are the 4 stages of the disease. On the 3rd stage, the patient may take only a few steps, the pain alone. On the 4th there trophic disorders of the tissues of the legs in the form of ulcers and necrosis.
With the development of the disease, in addition to intermittent claudication, the patient has dry skin, the disappearance of hair and subcutaneous fat in the legs, thickening of the nails.
All patients with intermittent claudication, regardless of stage of disease recommend complete cessation of Smoking, weight control, diet with a reduced amount of easily digestible carbohydrates, animal fats and cholesterol and regular running exercise programs lasting at least 1 hour a day (walking until the pain, rest, then continued walking.
Compliance with these recommendations usually leads to a doubling or even more challenging distances.
Diagnosis is based on data from the clinic, palpation, pulsation and auscultation of blood vessels. Of special methods most widely Doppler ultrasound, duplex scan, percutaneous change in oxygen tension. The final stage of the survey is angiography. This x-ray method, which allows you to see all the bloodstream from the aorta to the foot.
Medical treatment usually consists of improving the rheological properties (fluidity) of blood, drugs, activates metabolic processes in the tissues and reduce the level of atherogenic lipids in the blood. In some cases, may require the use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Surgical treatment is necessary at 2-3 stage of the disease. It can be endovascular intervention or open surgery to restore blood flow. At advanced stages, when there is gangrene of the extremities, may be required amputation.
Prevention of diseases of the arteries
Prevention of obliterating diseases of lower limb arteries is complete Smoking cessation, periodic monitoring of blood lipid spectrum, balanced diet and regular exercise.