The color of our skin defines the melanin. It is synthesized from melanocytes located in the deepest layer of the epidermis. The function of melanin is to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation. But this does not mean that more tanned people are better protected from the sun. In high doses, ultraviolet light causes burns, an accumulation of free radicals, DNA damage and pigmentation disorders of the skin, which leads to the formation of hyperpigmentation on the skin.
Leather, also can be painted with pigments of bile (yellow pigmentation), hemosiderin, silver compounds, inks, etc. But there are kinds of dangerous spots, which can endanger health and even human life. Basically, they include different types of melanoma.
Causes of increased skin pigmentation
• Enhanced skin pigmentation usually appears in places exposed to the sun: face, hands, neck, forearm and shoulders.
• Ultraviolet radiation plays a key role in the formation of skin spots.
• The process of excessive skin pigmentation can contribute to hormonal changes (birth control pills, hormone therapy, pregnancy).
• Acute and chronic inflammatory processes in the body.
• Photosensitizing substances present in medicines (e.g. antibiotics), perfumes and cosmetics (bleaching properties without protective filters containing AHAS / BHA, retinol, alcohol, essential oils).
• Change the color of the skin become worse with age.
• Lead to hyperpigmentation of metabolic disorders.
Condition in which there may be skin pigmentation
– Freckles – small brownish spots, with a diameter of 1-2 mm, which appear on the face, neck, dorsum of the hands. Usually, this is preceded by sun exposure, so in the summer they get darker and lighter in the winter.
– Lentigo – occurs in places exposed to the sun (face, hands and lower part of the neck). The spots are characterized by a regular shape and uniform staining (brown to black). Diameter from 1 mm to several centimeters, can merge with each other.
Disease in which there is abnormal skin pigmentation
– Melasma (chloasma) – change the color of the skin in two spots of irregular shape. Color stains from light brown to dark brown in color. Most often, appears symmetrically on the cheeks, forehead or upper lip, in women aged 30-35 years, during pregnancy, when taking birth control pills. Also may be caused by endocrine disorders or liver disease. Sometimes the disease is inherited.
– Melanosis of Riehl – reticular hyperpigmentation on the temples, cheeks, neck, under the chin. The reason that causes the disease – photosensitizing agents and certain foods.
– Phototoxic reaction – occurs when contact with the photosensitizer (cosmetics, herbal preparations) and subsequent irradiation of the skin UF. Substances which can cause fitotoksicheskie reactions: dill, celery, St. John’s wort, Angelica, sedative, hormone, diuretics, and antibiotics.
– Melanoma is the most malignant tumor of the skin, which if untreated can lead to death.
What doctor and when you should contact
Urgent help of a dermatologist, beauty or medical oncologist needed in such cases:
• Sunburn in the field of vascular anomalies (e.g. lentigines) and other skin blemishes.
• If there are stains that occur during pregnancy, puberty.
• If freckles, age spots or growths began to grow in size very quickly.
• There is a drastic color change.
• Worried about itching, burning.
• Bleeding or inflammation in the area of increased pigmentation of the skin.
• Jagged or uneven color spots.
• Presence of malignant neoplasms at other family members (close consanguinity).
• Spots are not visible clear boundaries separating them from other skin.
• Strange color (pink, brown or black).
• Diameter from 5 – 15mm.
• Preventive examinations in the presence of spots on the skin (if you do not bother) 1 time per year.
Symptomatic treatment pigmentation
From a dermatologist begins with a survey of spots wood’s light. Sometimes the stains cannot be removed completely, can only lighten and make them less noticeable. Depending on the type of stain your doctor may recommend:
Use of bleaching agents. Most known for:
Is hydroquinone in a concentration of from 1.5 to 8 % (arbutin, ercolin, arbutoid – ointment, alcohol solutions). Whitens at the initial stage of the appearance of spots. Visible results are achieved within a few weeks. A side effect is discoloration of the skin around the spot.
– Retinoids (tretinoin cream, synthetic vitamin a, Accutane, Retin –A) – analogues of vitamin A. the treatment lasts up to 3 months.
– Azelaic acid (15-20% skinoren, azelic) – removes minor inflammation and hyperpigmentation, and eliminates acne. Frequent use may cause redness and burning of the skin.
– Kojic acid (1-4% with the same name) is a non-toxic, expressed exfoliating property that inhibits the formation of melanin.
– Vitamin C (not less than 5 %)
– Corticosteroids (prednisone, hydrocortisone ointment, gel) – has strong anti-inflammatory effects, reduce the activity of melanocytes. Good combination with bleaching agents.
Chemical peels – the purpose of the procedure is to improve the appearance of the skin of the face, neck and hands, cleanse and smooth the skin and restore its color. A chemical peel consists of acids (glycolic, trichloroacetic or kojic), which has controlled the damaging effect on the skin. Peels can remove fine wrinkles, discoloration, excessive pigmentation, eliminating minor scars from acne.
Dermabrasion (deep mechanical exfoliation) – exfoliation is performed under the action of the smallest particles. It is a mechanical abrasion of the upper layers of the epidermis and dermis. The treatment is carried out using a special electrical device with bradauskas disc – brush. The procedure is performed under local or General anesthesia, depending on the surface area of the skin. After the procedure, make the dressing. Skin regeneration takes several weeks. Treatment is indicated in case of removal of acne scars, markings after smallpox, some post-traumatic scars, hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and tattoos.
Microdermabrasion – the mechanical removal of the stratum corneum using abrasive wheels.
Cryotherapy – freezing the spots with liquid nitrogen, and then the removal of dead skin. The method is very effective, but sometimes the scars remain.
Laser treatments – the skin pigment melanin absorbs the light energy from the laser and thus burns.
High technology – include drugs to ultrasottile skin (creams, serums, masks). The set includes a special substances from hyperpigmentation, which inhibits the formation of tyrosinase and thus blocks the formation of melanoblasts, destroy the excess melanin.
– Mask of colloidal gold (gold mask) – restore the correct functioning of melanocytes. The treatment is very effective, but its cost is about $ 1,000 per procedure, and to get the desired effect you need several procedures.
– Illuminating compositions of resveratrol – homologuous the skin, effectively dissolve stains derive the melanin from the cells. Minus method does not prevent the formation of melanin.
Herbal medicine homemade ways to treat pigmentation
– Juice or puree pineapple – contains a substance bromelain (an enzyme that dissolves the melanocytes) and fruit acids.
– The juice from citrus fruits – has strong bleaching and peeling property.
– Infusion of skin lemon contains essential oils and fruit acids. Well whitens and moisturizes the skin.
Mashed papaya contains large amounts of vitamin A, improves the protective properties of the skin.
– Raspberry juice – a bleaching property that vitamin.
– Whitening lotion: cut the cucumber into slices with the skin on and put in the milk buttermilk. The infusion will be ready in 3 hours. Wipe face with a cotton swab dipped in the infusion.
– Decoction of spots: to a blender or grind in a coffee grinder a few flowers mother-and-stepmother, grass Rue, and knotweed in equal proportions. Spoon the mixture, pour a glass of water and cook for 5 minutes. Decoction to wipe your face several times a day.
– Brightening exfoliation mask: mix a Cup of chamomile tea and a Cup of yogurt. Then to the solution add dry milk to a creamy consistency. Mask apply on face, wash off after 20 minutes.
Wine brightening tonic: 2 tablespoons of nettle mix with a spoon of grated horseradish and pour a bottle of white wine. Cover tightly and let stand for 14 days. The obtained toner need to use 2 times a day.
– Whitening mask No. 1: 3 tablespoons potato flour mix with a spoon of lemon juice and a tablespoon of yogurt. Apply on the face. Wash off after 10 minutes.
– Whitening mask # 2: squeeze the juice of fresh leaves of lettuce or spinach and mix it with honey (3 to 1). Apply to skin with a brush or cotton swab and rinse off the field is completely dry. Note! This mask is not suitable for people with translucent or dilated capillaries.
– Whitening mask No. 4: mush them grated celery mix with a spoon of natural cheese high fat content, apply to face for 15 minutes and rinse.
– Whitening mask No. 5: approximately 150 g of immature berries of currant mash with a fork and add 1 tablespoon of warm (not hot!) honey. You can dilute the lemon juice. Apply to skin and wash off after 30 minutes.
Always select fresh products, their surpluses do not leave for tomorrow, as they lose their properties.