Causes of cardiovascular disorders in children – often bad heredity or congenital abnormalities. But there are two diseases that are fraught with complications it is at the heart of the baby. This rheumatic fever and Kawasaki disease. Especially they are dangerous because they are difficult to diagnose: initially, all the symptoms of common colds or the flu.
ACUTE RHEUMATIC FEVER
This disease is rare in children under 3 years. The most dangerous age – primary school, less – preschool. More girls are affected. The occurrence of rheumatic fever and its recurrence associated with streptococcal infection. It is a Streptococcus causes tonsillitis, pharyngitis, streptococcal cervical lymphadenitis. That is why the pain of angina can give heart complications.
How is this manifested? The child suffered acute tonsillitis or pharyngitis, or a complication of chronic streptococcal infection and seems to be cured. In fact, the disease has entered a “latent”, latent period, which can last from 1 to 3 weeks. The baby looks healthy, except that he sometimes fever.
At the end of the second period of the disease, comes the third: a rash, similar to pale pink ring-shaped rash on the trunk, arms and legs. This means that the disease had struck the heart, joints and nervous system. The complication can be of three types: rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever and small chorea.
Rheumatic heart disease
Affects the heart: it is the inflammation of all or some of the layers of the heart wall. Characterized by severe shortness of breath, palpitations, disruption and pain in the heart, the appearance of cough, frequent, irregular pulse. During physical activity the child has swollen legs, increases the volume of the abdomen. If you continue not to treat rheumatic heart disease, it can cause of acquired heart disease.
It is a rheumatic affection of the joints. In large and medium joints, such as knee and ankle, appear severe pain, swelling, skin in the joints blushes. The kid struggle with every movement.
How to prevent? The best prevention is to increase immunity – hardening, the correct mode with alternating load and rest, nutritious food. It is necessary to identify and treat acute and chronic infection. And again, if the doctor offers a tonsillectomy is the removal of the tonsils do not rush to give up. Exactly tonsils are very often a breeding ground of streptococcal infection and inflammation of these small organs – chronic tonsillitis may one day develop into rheumatic fever.
Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, often affects boys. About 80% of patients fall ill at the age of five. The later treatment is started, the more likely it is that lesions of the heart and blood vessels will be serious.
How is this manifested Kawasaki disease? still arguing, what is the cause of Kawasaki disease. Presumably she has an infectious origin. First comes the fever: temperature may rise from 37.5-38,0°C to 40,0°C. Such fluctuations in body temperature continues for 3 weeks.
The child becomes excitable, he swell the throat and lymph nodes in the neck, appears brightly colored rash in the form of ill-defined spots of various sizes. The stain can merge and cover most of the body, and sometimes the face. Can develop photophobia, eye inflammation, begins conjunctivitis.
Another alarming symptom “Strawberry tongue”: it is covered with bloom, “wrapped”, swollen and painful. Lips and mucous membrane of the mouth becomes dry, becoming bright red. Begin to blush palms and soles of the hands. Hands and feet may swell. The child is excited, but from the mobile games refuses because his joints lose their flexibility and get sick.
A couple of weeks after onset of illness fever abated. At the same time disappear rash and swelling of the lymph nodes, but begins to exfoliate the skin around the nails on the hands and feet is a condition resembles a molting snake. The knees, hips and ankles of the child can be inflamed and painful. However, soon all these unpleasant sensations disappear.
What to do when the rheumatism? Invisible eye of destruction, which is Kawasaki disease of the cardiovascular system, the expansion of the coronary arteries. Subsequently, this may cause thrombosis and rupture and cause a heart attack. Contractile function of the heart and the valves also suffer begins heart failure.
How to prevent rheumatoid arthritis? One of the treatment methods is that the child is injected with large doses of gamma globulin. It protects the heart and blood vessels from irreversible damage. The earlier you start the introduction gamma-globulin, the greater the chance of avoiding complications.
Aspirin helps to relieve fever, joint inflammation and pain, but also prevents the formation of blood clots. Constantly monitor the number of platelets in the blood, and if the level is significantly higher than the norms prescribed and stronger than aspirin, blood-thinning” means.
After recovery, the child is still in the next few years should see a cardiologist. In most cases, the prognosis for Kawasaki disease is favorable.