Skin cancer is a malignant tumor of skin cells. This cancer is among the most common tumors. More common in males over 60 years old, fair-skinned people and workers outdoors. According to statistics from the greater number of cases recorded in the southern part of the United States, Europe and other countries of the world. The number of people with cancer is constantly growing.
Causes of Skin Cancer
The doctors still can’t definitively say why a person develops skin cancer, but they have identified some contributing factors:
- To the main reasons for the formation of a malignant tumor on the skin include solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation. When they impact the human body begins to defend itself by producing a pigment, which is popularly known as the sun.
- Influence of chemical carcinogens (fuel oil, soot, coal tar, etc.)
- Exposure to x-rays and any other ionizing radiation.
- Long-term thermal influence on any area of the skin.
- genetic predisposition.
- occupational hazards, such as permanent contact with tar or arsenic.
Obligate pass into a malignant tumor in 100%.
- Bowen’s Disease is a developing brown-red plaque, gradually giving ulceration. Treatment — surgery or cryosurgery.
- Paget’s Disease is usually a tumor of the breast, and sometimes the perineum, genitals. Treated with surgery.
- Xeroderma pigmentosum – a congenital changes of the skin, manifested in increased sensitivity to the sun’s rays. Originally arise spots, then dermatitis and skin atrophy. Treatment — remove the growths surgically.
Optional — have a high risk of malignancy, but not always malignant.
- Scarring after lupus, syphilis, burns, trophic ulcers;
- Senile dyskeratosis and keratoacanthoma;
- Chronic dermatitis;
- Cutaneous horn – keratinized dense brown papilla;
- Often traumatized warts, sebaceous cysts and papillomas.
Skin Cancer – Pictures and Photos
There are several main types of skin cancer: squamous cell, melanoma, basal cell
Basal cell carcinoma (basal cell carcinoma) most common, slow growing and sometimes breaks in the next tissue, destroying them. Spreads a little. Basal cell carcinoma is predominantly located on the face. She at first like a flat plaque, which eventually ulcerate and crust is covered. Basal cell cancer eventually destroys the cartilage, bone and fascia, leading to extensive tissue damage or disruption of surrounding organs. The treatment of this kind of tumor is radiotherapy cryosurgical method. In rare cases, surgery is needed.
Squamous skin cancer is not rare formed on precancer of the skin. The tumor is usually single, may be localized on any part of the body (usually exposed areas). This type of cancer differs from basal cell carcinoma that grows rapidly and metastasizes (usually lymphatic). Metastases located in lymph nodes, lung and skin, their presence significantly worsens the prognosis of the disease. Squamous cell skin cancer can form on the scars, trophic ulcers and dermatitis.
A lump on the skin can develop:
- endophytic (the node is in the skin and develops into a deep ulcer);
- exophytic (has the appearance of warts, papilloma or cauliflower).
As in other squamous cell malignancies there is a high sensitivity to radiation treatment.
Melanoma is formed from the cells (melanocytes) that produce the pigment melanin, and refers to the most aggressive types of skin cancer. This is due to the fact that it rapidly metastasizes. Sunlight activates the high melanin formation and increases the risk of developing this cancer.
Melanoma usually appears on mucous membranes or open skin areas. It can be a different color, shape and size. Sometimes the melanoma is formed of nevus, i.e., birthmarks or moles. There are several main symptoms of the transition of nevus to melanoma:
- itching, redness, swelling of surrounding tissues;
- change of size or color;
- the formation of ulcers in the centre.
Stage of Cancer Skin
Stage 0 – the tumor penetrates into deep skin layers and located only in the epidermis. With timely recognition of the disease is completely curable.
Stage 1 is the germination of cancer in the lower layers of the epidermis, it is up to 2 centimeters in diameter and does not metastasis to the lymph nodes. At this stage, the disease can be cured 100%.
Stage 2 – a tumor up to 5 cm in diameter, penetrates into the entire thickness of the skin, valid 1 presence of metastasis in the lymph node. The skin is visibly affected, there is pain. With appropriate treatment survival rate of about 50%.
Stage 3 – it affects nearby lymph nodes, tumor 5 cm in diameter. At this stage there is ulceration, from time to time recorded a rise in body temperature. With the right therapeutic approach, the survival rate of 30%.
Stage 4 – metastases spread throughout the body, affecting lungs and liver, ulcers, bleeding continuously, marked symptoms of intoxication. The forecast is not favorable.
Skin cancer at the initial stage it is better to treat. The bigger the stage, the more difficult to find effective therapy.
Medical history of Skin Cancer
Surface shape — the most common variant of skin cancer. Initially formed one or more small nodules, slightly raised above the skin, not sick, and merging with each other. They have a whitish or yellowish color and firm to the touch. Most often, when the initial form of the people to the doctor is not treated.
After some time the tumor grows. Its edges have the form of a roller with a rough outline. Then the center of the plaque begins to sink, and covered with a crust. When removal of the formed droplets of blood. In the end, the tumor is similar to the eroded surface. Described above for the more typical basal cell cancer.
Infiltrative form similar to jagged, deep ulceration covered with crusts and have Velikobritanii region. The cancer quickly spread into surrounding tissue and become fixed. This course usually is characteristic of squamous tumors.
The papillary form is not common in squamous cell carcinoma. A tight knot rises above the skin and bleeds easily. Bumpy surface similar to a cauliflower.
Diagnosis of Skin Cancer
In the formation on the skin or mucous membranes of any new education is better to consult a qualified professional. He will examine and prescribe the necessary diagnostic methods to confirm the diagnosis.
Often, an experienced doctor enough inspection to suggest the correct diagnosis. But to clarify, be sure to perform a biopsy. When this manipulation is taken a piece of the tumor for viewing under a microscope. Biopsy allows to determine the type of cancer.
Skin Cancer Prevent
For the prevention of malignant tumors of the skin, you need:
- Constant use of nourishing creams to prevent dryness of the skin;
- to Protect exposed skin from long sun exposure;
- to Protect the scars from mechanical injury;
- as soon As possible to begin treatment of precancerous lesions;
- to Observe protection measures when working with harmful substances;
- Full treatment of long nonhealing fistulas and ulcers.
Skin Cancer Treatment
Tumors of the skin use surgery, radiation, cryogenic, medical and laser treatment, and combinations thereof. A therapeutic method is selected based on the histology, location, stage, form, growth and condition of the skin around.
When localization of cancer in the face, consider the aesthetic outcome of the treatment, which, however, can reduce the effectiveness of therapy.
Drug treatment (chemotherapy) is used combined with other therapy. Drug (Aldesleukin, Interferon, 5-fluorouracil, Dacarbazine) enhance immunity and destroy cancer cells.
Radiation therapy is usually used for cancer of the small diameter. Disadvantages — duration of treatment ( more than 30 days) and damage to healthy tissue.
Surgical treatment is usually used when cancer of the limbs and trunk. Cancer cells are excised a couple of inches from the edge. Using liquid nitrogen, carry out a cryogenic impact.