There are many methods of treating hemorrhoids, one of which, the most radical is surgical intervention. Surgery to remove hemorrhoids be a last resort when conservative methods do not bring a positive result when the disease progresses, sharply reduced ability to work of the sick and to help it already anything it is impossible.
Surgery requires the physician exercise extreme caution and unconditional arguments. Before you agree to surgery to remove hemorrhoids, you need to discuss all the nuances, particularly to know the reasons for which an assigned operation, the level of risk forecast in case of development of the disease and the effects of surgery of hemorrhoids after surgery.
The main indications for removal operations are frequent or rare, but abundant, causing anemia hemorrhoidal bleeding. As well as constant, with each bowel movement the prolapse, high risk of thrombosis or infringement. The main objective of surgical intervention is to remove all the inflamed hemorrhoids.
In large urban hospitals surgery to remove hemorrhoids is often enough, but, and specialized in proctology hospitals surgery is one of the first places. Young people from rich and not stopping the bleeding, which quickly leads to anemizatsii, the operation is definitely shown (in the case of unsuccessful invasive treatment methods). In persons of middle age the permanent loss of internal nodes or due to seasonal exacerbations, the operation is also shown. Made by modern technologies and methods, the operation gives a good stable result.
In what cases and how to produce an operation to remove hemorrhoids
But there is a large group of patients with hemorrhoids — aged people suffering from constipation and disorders of cardiac or pulmonary activity, which operation to carry out in any case impossible. For them in most cases will be an effective palliative methods of conservative treatment. First, to do the operation only to such patients, the bleeding, does not cause anemia, and in most cases impractical. Secondly, elimination of constipation and defecation after fulfilling some requirements for the toilet of the anus, the use of suppositories, compliance with sparing diet together with special physiotherapy to give patients a satisfactory effect and is very often a need for the operation itself disappears.
When properly selected treatment and when receiving the effect from the conservative treatment patients begin to take care of their health. Small bleeding for them a safe and permanent tracking for chair and toilet after emptying nobody were useless. In addition, surgery to remove the hemorrhoids patients who are elderly presents some risk. Since the position of the patient on his back with legs given to the abdomen, decreased regenerative ability of healing wounds in the anus, the risk of voiding (dysuria) after surgery in men, frequent purulent complications of hemorrhoidectomy developing and in some cases incompetence of the anal sphincter after normal devolve sphincter. Very dangerous, especially for older people, such complications after hemorrhoid surgery.
To date, in practice it is used quite a lot of different modifications of surgical intervention. Surgeon, based on the characteristics of development and course of disease, and anatomical characteristics of the patient, selects the most appropriate method. Then, with the patient’s consent and following the chosen methodology, he performs the task. And the cost of surgery to remove hemorrhoids is different depending on the applied method of surgical intervention.
Minimally Invasive Treatments of Hemorrhoids
- Sclerotherapy. This type of minimally invasive treatment is used mainly in patients with 1-3 stages of hemorrhoids and also as a way to stop the bleeding. The method consists in the introduction of sclerosing drugs in hemorrhoids using anoscope and special syringe. Under the influence of drugs the vessels within the nodes are replaced by connective tissue.
- Infrared coagulation. For this procedure uses a special machine called photocoagulator. Using the hardware anoscope ferrule optical fiber is supplied to the node. Heat flux passing through the optical fiber coagulates the surface of the node. This method is closer to the leg and is only used to stop bleeding.
- On the Ligation of hemorrhoidal nodes with latex rings. This small surgery to hemorrhoid treatment is carried out using vacuum or mechanical Ligator. In the process of the procedure, for internal hemorrhoids latex rings are worn. Gradually, the node together with a latex ligature approximately two weeks later, rejected. In place of rejection of the host remains the stump, covered with connective tissue.
- Cryotherapy. In most cases this procedure is performed under local anesthesia. During surgery hemorrhoids for 3-4 minutes, frozen with liquid nitrogen. When thawing occurs, the host immediately dies, and in its place formed a small wound that is treated with different drugs.
The above-described minimally invasive treatments do not require General anesthesia and hospitalization. However, laser therapy or cryotherapy anesthesia is still needed, local or epidural anesthesia. A significant disadvantage of any of the minimally invasive techniques — they are not eliminated the main causes for excessive blood flow to the hemorrhoidal.
One of the newest modern methods to resolve this problem is laser hemorrhoid surgery, called laser photocoagulation. It is known that the laser has excellent cutting and cauterizing a property that has found application in many areas of medicine, including proctology. The operation of hemorrhoids by laser is possible if the internal and external nodes, even after their thrombosis. During the operation, the internal node burned from the inside by laser, and then develops inside the host connective tissue and it is reduced. When external hemorrhoids hemorrhoid is simply cut by laser, and the tissues directly soldered with each other without bleeding.
With regard to surgical procedures, these procedures are performed under General anesthesia and, of course, require the admission of the patient at the time of the operation and the rehabilitation period. Recovery after hemorrhoid surgery can last differently, depending on many factors.
Types of operations for hemorrhoids
There are the following methods of surgical treatment of hemorrhoids:
- Hemorrhoidectomy. This is the standard operation to remove hemorrhoids, used widely by many surgeons. Using this method, the surgeon cuts a portion of the perianal skin, anoderm and mucous membrane of the rectum, located above the hemorrhoidal node, and traverse. The doctor then produces a fixation of the mucosa to the underlying tissues. This surgery gives very good results and after the surgery to remove hemorrhoids rare recurrences. To avoid pain after surgery hemorrhoids and urinary retention (as the most common complications after hemorrhoidectomy) should not be tamponade anal canal. Recommend patients to limit fluid intake.
- Transanal resection of the mucosa by the method of Longo. This operation when you remove hemorrhoids good alternative to the classical method. Its essence lies in the circulation of resection and suturing of hemorrhoids. During the operation according to the method of Longo removes only the part of the mucous membrane of the rectum, which is just above the dentate line. Defect mucosa between stapled titanium staples with the help of the “end to end”. The operation resulted in the inflamed nodes are not removed, and tightened up greatly decreasing in volume as a result of reduced blood flow to the veins. Due to reduction in blood flow hemorrhoids gradually zapustevayut, overgrown connective tissue. The drawback of this method is the impossibility of removal of hemorrhoids are located outside.
- Departuredate. the Essence of this innovative method consists in ligation of the hemorrhoidal arteries. Data method of treatment is the most effective and painless for all stages of hemorrhoids. The main advantage of this technique is the lack of wounds and bleeding, short rehabilitation period (4-5 days).
When you remove hemorrhoids by using either of the surgeries has its risk. Despite the fact that hemorrhoid treatment after surgery in the future may not will need, nobody can give an absolute guarantee that the hemorrhoids after the surgery again declare itself. Therefore, in any case, before deciding on the surgery, it is necessary to weigh all “for” and “against”, to consult with not one, but several doctors.