Typhoid — an acute infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella. This pathogen can persist in water and soil up to 5 months. Dies when heated and exposed to common disinfectants.
The only source of infection is a sick man, bacillicarriers. Bacillus of typhoid fever is transferred by dirty hands, by sewage, by flies. Dangerous outbreaks associated with consumption of infected food products (cold meats, milk, etc.).
Symptoms and course of typhoid fever
The incubation period is 1-3 weeks. In typical cases the disease begins gradually. The patient noted weakness and rapid fatigue, and mild headache. Then these symptoms increase, the body temperature rises to 39-40, decreases or disappears appetite, disturbed sleep (sleepiness during the day and insomnia at night). There are constipation, flatulence. On the 7th – 9th day of the disease on the skin of the upper abdomen and lower rib cage there is the characteristic rash that looks like small red spots with clear edges and a diameter of 2-3 mm, which rise above the level of the skin. They are called roseola. Disappearing roseola may be replaced with new ones. Also characterized by a peculiar confusion of patients, the fall of the pulse, pallor of the face, lower blood pressure. Tongue cracked and dry, covered with brown or dirty-brown coating, tip and edges free from plaque, you can see the teeth marks.
Is rough rumbling of the cecum, there is tenderness in the right iliac region, spleen and liver are enlarged on palpation. To 4 weeks the patient’s condition gradually improved, the temperature falls, the headache passes and has a good appetite. Formidable complications of typhoid fever – intestinal bleeding, intestinal perforation.
Treatment of typhoid fever
The main antimicrobial agent for chloramphenicol. Intravenously administered isotonic solution of sodium chloride and glucose solution 5%. In severe cases, injected corticosteroids (prednisone). The patient must strictly comply with bed rest at least 7 days.
Prevention of typhoid fever
The main preventive measure is the observance of sanitary standards in food factories, water and sewage. Need for early detection of cases and their isolation. Disinfection of linen, premises, glassware (linen and dishes are boiled after use by patients), the fight against flies. For had been ill with typhoid fever is clinical supervision.