Spotted fever is a disease that can be caused by R. prowazeki, while it is characterized by fever, a peculiar rash and typhoid state. It flows cyclically. Also a symptom of typhus is the defeat of the cardiovascular and nervous system.
The source of infection — are head and body lice. Mesosaline blood containing rickettsiae in humans, a typhoid patient, they can transfer them to a completely healthy person. Infection occurs when the person is scratching the bites, thus inadvertently rubs into the skin feces of lice. The bite is completely harmless because in the salivary glands no lice typhus pathogen. People with enough high level of susceptibility to typhus.
Symptoms and diagnosis of the typhus
12-14 days from the moment of infection incubation period. Around this time, infected with typhus people may feel a small headache, chilliness and ache in the body.
Characterized by a fever that may be accompanied by fever, but within 2-3 days is set and is kept in the range of 38-39°C, in rare cases it can reach the maximum value by the end of 1 day. The permanent nature of fever occurs in the future, it is characterized by small temperature decrease at 4, 8 and 12 day of the disease. From the very beginning there is insomnia, sudden and severe headache, fatigue comes quickly, although the patient is often agitated (active and talkative). The face becomes red and swollen. Small hemorrhages may bleed through and be visible on the conjunctiva of the eye. In the throat begins with diffuse hyperemia, and petechial hemorrhages may appear on the soft palate. Tongue dry, not thickened, but, there is often a grayish-brown patina, sometimes the tongue protrudes with difficulty. The skin feels hot and dry, sweating in the early days almost never almost never happens. In patients breathing quickened, there has been a considerable weakening of the heart sounds, increased liver and spleen (this happens about 3-4 days of illness). Typhus rash is also one of the most characteristic features. The rash manifests itself directly on 4 or day 5 after the disease. It’s rich and multiple, preferably located at the joints of hands, apply to hands and feet, and on the skin lateral surfaces of the abdomen and chest. Her face is never.
Precipitation is distributed fairly quickly, within 2 or 3 days and disappears only after 78 days, while the pigmentation may at some time stay. Health and overall condition of the patient after the rash is much worse. Intoxication dramatically increases. The mobility and excitability of the patient is replaced by fatigue, depression, dullness and lethargy. By this time, can develop collapse, in which the patient is in a state of prostration, skin covered with cold sweat, quickens the pulse, tones of heart become deaf.
Typical signs of recovery are reduced body temperature, rapid lysis, beginning with 8 and 12 day of illness, gradual reduction of headaches, improvement of sleep and appetite, reconstruction activities of internal organs of the patient.
How to treat typhus. The most effective way you can cure typhus, to date, is the adoption by the patient of antibiotics of the tetracycline group. You need to take them 4 times a day 0.3-0.4, you Can also make use of the chloramphenicol. Antibiotics should be taken until the second day after establishment of normal body temperature, duration of the course of their admission is usually no more than 4 or 5 days, depending on individual characteristics of the organism of a sick person. Avoid detoxification patients administered 5 % solution containing glucose. Quite often resort to the use of oxygen therapy. If the patient has a sudden arousal, need to be taken barbiturates and chloral hydrate. Vitamin therapy and nutrition also are important. Important role in speedy recovery of the patient plays a proper care of (fresh air, complete rest, comfortable clothes and bedding, daily toilet of the mouth and skin).
The best prevention for suspected typhus is early and timely hospitalization of patients. Good sanitation of the home. Careful supervision with daily thermometry of the persons who were in contact with the patient, is carried out within 25 days.