Ultrasound diagnosis of the body
Ultrasound is the study of organs and tissues using ultrasonic waves. Passing through tissues of different densities, but rather through the boundaries between different tissues, ultrasound has many repercussions from them. Special host sensor captures these changes, turning them into a graphical representation that can be fixed on the monitor or special photo paper.
Ultrasonic method is simple and affordable, has no contraindications. Ultrasound can be applied repeatedly during the entire period of monitoring of the patient for several months or years. Moreover, the test can be repeated several times in a single day, if required by the clinical situation.
Sometimes research difficult or uninformative because of the presence of the patient post-surgical scars, bandages, obesity, expressed flatulence. In these and other cases in our Department can be performed computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Including when pathological processes revealed by ultrasonography, require further examination through more informative methods of clarifying the diagnosis.
History of ultrasound method
Ultrasound in nature discovered by the Italian scientist Lazzaro Spallanzani in 1794, He noticed that if a bat to plug your ears, she loses orientation. He suggested that the orientation in space is carried out by means of the emitted and perceived invisible rays. In the future, they are called ultrasonic waves.
In 1942, a German physician Theodor Dusik and his brother physicist Friedrich Dussik tried to use ultrasound for the diagnosis of a brain tumor in humans.
The first medical ultrasonic device was created in 1949 by the American scientist Douglas Hauri.
Of particular note is the contribution to the development of diagnostic ultrasound Christian Anders Doppler, who in his treatise “On allometrically characterization study of double stars and certain other stars of the sky” speculated about the existence of important physical effect when the frequency of the received waves depends on the speed of moving the radiating object relative to the observer. This became the basis of the Doppler – techniques for changing the speed of blood flow using ultrasound.
Features and advantages of the ultrasound
Ultrasound is a widely used method in diagnostics. He exposes the patient to radiation exposure and is considered harmless. However, ultrasound has several limitations. Method is not standardized, and the quality of the research depends on the hardware on which the research is carried out and the qualifications of the doctor. An additional constraint for us is overweight and/or flatulence, which prevents the conduction of ultrasonic waves.
Ultrasound is the standard method of diagnosis, which is used for screening. In such situations, when diseases and complaints in a patient not yet, for early preclinical diagnosis should be used exactly ultrasound. If there is already known pathology is better to choose a CT or MRI as specifying diagnostic methods.
Applications of ultrasound in medicine is extremely wide. For diagnostic purposes it is used for the detection of diseases of organs of an abdominal cavity and kidneys, pelvic, thyroid, mammary glands, heart, vascular, obstetric and pediatric practice. Also, ultrasound is used as a method of diagnosis of emergency conditions requiring surgical intervention such as acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, thrombosis, etc.
Ultrasound is the preferred method of diagnosis by examination during pregnancy, because x-ray research methods can harm the fetus.
Preparation for ultrasound
Examination of the abdominal cavity is performed on an empty stomach (previous meal no earlier than 6-8 hours prior to the study), in the morning. From the diet for 1-2 days should be deleted legumes, raw vegetables, brown bread, milk. With tendency to the formation consider taking activated charcoal 1 tablet 3 times a day, other chelators, festal. If the patient has diabetes mellitus let light Breakfast (warm tea, dried white bread).
To perform transabdominal study of the pelvic organs (bladder, uterus or prostate) requires the filling of the bladder. Recommended from urinating within 3 hours prior to the study or receiving 300-500 ml of water 1 hour before the study. When conducting internal investigations (through the vagina in women, or through the rectum in men), on the contrary, it is necessary to empty the bladder.
Ultrasound examination of the heart, blood vessels, thyroid gland does not require special training.
Contraindications for ultrasound
Contraindications to ultrasound no. Ultrasound is the method of choice for diagnosis of pathological conditions during pregnancy. Ultrasound has no radial load, it can be repeated unlimited number of times.
How is the ultrasound examination
The doctor or nurse will invite You into the office of ultrasonic diagnostics, and will ask You to lie down on the couch, exposing the investigated part of the body. For the best of ultrasonic waves the doctor will put on the skin with a special gel that does not contain any drugs and is completely neutral to the organism.
During the study, the doctor will close to the body in different positions of the ultrasonic sensor. The images will be displayed on the monitor and printed on special thermal paper.
In the study of vessels will be enabled determination of blood flow velocity using Doppler study. In this case, the study will be accompanied by a distinctive sound, reflecting the movement of blood through the vessel.