Blood pressure

Upper and lower blood pressure

Upper and lower blood pressure

Blood pressure is the pressure of blood in the major arteries of man. There are two blood pressure:

  • Systolic (upper) blood pressure is the pressure of blood in the time of maximum contraction of the heart. Top pressure (120 mm Hg) is responsible for the heart, for the force with which it pushes blood into the arteries. It is generally believed that the more the heart beats, the higher the pressure in the arteries. Although this is not always so, for example, when in a state of shock, when blood pressure decreases, the heart begins to beat faster, which is a compensatory reaction. But when hypertension heart rate is usually increased.
  • Diastolic (bottom) blood pressure is the pressure of blood at the moment of maximum relaxation of the heart. Lower blood pressure is responsible for the tone of blood vessels. The wall of blood vessels have three layers: the endothelium (inner), muscle and adventitia (outer). Vascular tone is provided by a muscular sheath.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury, abbreviated mm Hg the Value of blood pressure is 120/80 means that the values of systolic (upper) pressure is 120 mm Hg, and the value of the diastolic (bottom) blood pressure is 80 mm Hg.

Why measure blood pressure?

Why measure blood pressureThe increase in pressure for every 10 mm Hg increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by 30%. People with high blood pressure 7 times more likely to develop disorders of cerebral circulation (stroke), 4 times more often coronary heart disease, 2 times more likely to be a lesion of vessels of the legs. It is the measurement of blood pressure is necessary to start searching for the causes of such frequent manifestations of discomfort, such as headache, weakness, dizziness. In many cases, the pressure required constant monitoring, and measurements should be performed several times a day.

How to understand high or low blood pressure?

Blood pressure is one of the most important indicators of the functioning of the body, so every person need to know its value. The higher the level of blood pressure, the higher the risk of such dangerous diseases as coronary heart disease, stroke, heart attack, kidney failure.

To assess the level of blood pressure using the classification of the world health organization adopted in 1999.

Category blood pressure*

Systolic (upper) blood pressure mm Hg

Diastolic (bottom) blood pressure mm Hg








High normal




1 degree (soft)



grade 2 (moderate)



3rd degree (severe)






Isolated systolic hypertension



* If systolic and Diastolic blood pressure in different categories, the higher category is selected.
** Optimal with respect to the risk of developing cardiovascular complications and mortality

The terms “soft” and “borderline”, “heavy”, “moderate” given in the classification, only characterize the level of arterial pressure, but not the severity of illness of the patient.

In daily clinical practice, adopted the classification of arterial hypertension world health organization, based on the defeat of the so-called target organs. This is the most common complications that occur in the brain, eyes, heart, kidneys and blood vessels.

Hypertension – symptoms and complications

Hypertension (hypertension) – persistent high blood pressure in large arteries systolic (upper) pressure over 140 mm Hg  for diastolic (lower) pressure over 90 mm Hg. Anyone, even a completely healthy person, blood pressure is not normal. The pressure can be increased, when a person runs, perform some physical work, emotional response to various situations, etc. But as soon as terminate as of the specific factors that caused the increase of pressure, it comes back to normal within 5-10 minutes. If the pressure is reduced slowly, or not reduced at all, it may be a sign of the development of hypertension. In Europe and the United States suffer from hypertension, 39% of men and 41% women.

According to the State statistics Committee of the United States, arterial hypertension and its complications are the cause of death of more than 100 thousand people per year. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for the development of cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, cardiac and renal failure, lesions of the eye. For many people this leads to deterioration of memory, loss of speech, paralysis, and sometimes to severe disability and premature death.

Carefully watch the level of your blood pressure. If it remains elevated for a long time, inform your doctor!

Hypertensive crisis – symptoms and complications

Under hypertensive crisis see a sharp increase (by 50% or more) systolic and DISTO-chip metallic blood pressure. This condition causes severe headache, vomiting, nausea,impaired vision, and in addition, faces dangerous complications (stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema). Sudden pressure drops lead to impaired functioning of vital organs and cause them to damage more often than high pressure.

We should pay particular attention to the crises, which are the manifestation of hypertension, and neurosis or vascular dystonia of hypertensive type. They may appear even in young people.

The modern variety of antihypertensive drugs almost any crisis can be docked, but we should not forget about its likely effects and dangerous complications. Therefore, one of the most important tasks of treatment is prevention and prevention of hypertensive crises.

Regular treatment and regular monitoring of blood pressure effectively prevent the development of hypertensive crises!

Atherosclerosis – symptoms and complications

Atherosclerosis – a common chronic disease characterized by the deterioration of the structure of the walls of the arteries and formation of fibrous plaques, narrowing the lumen of the arteries and impairs their physiological functions, which causes poor circulation.

To atherosclerosis leads to the violation of lipid metabolism in which in the blood increases the content of cholesterol and triglycerides. Excess cholesterol deposited on the walls of blood vessels and form plaques that clog the lumen of the vessels.

High blood pressure and atherosclerosis are interrelated. Atherosclerosis causes an increase in blood pressure, and it in turn accelerates the development of atherosclerosis.

Increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides cannot be felt, it can only be measured in the study of blood. Normal rates are: cholesterol less than 5.0 mmol / l, triglycerides — less than 1.3 mg/ml At lowering cholesterol decreases the risk of dangerous diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Regularly monitor the level of cholesterol in the blood and encourage reduction!