Blood pressure

What is normal blood pressure?


What is normal blood pressure

Blood pressure blood the concept is individual and depends on various factors. However in physiology there is a range within which the pressure is close to normal values. The values are constantly going beyond this range, indicate the existence of pathologies. The pressure change during the day and depending on age. High blood pressure (hypertension) is one of the most frequent signs of age-related changes in the vascular system.

Let us consider, what are the norms by age blood pressure of the person, and also find out the reasons of increase/decrease in blood pressure.

General information on blood pressure

Abnormal blood pressure and explain a bad mood, and insomnia, and reduced efficiency. From a physiological perspective of blood pressure is the force with which the blood exerts on the vascular wall. A more correct name – blood pressure, since blood pressure and arterial and venous vessels.

Measuring pressure with the help of special devices is possible only in large vessels that are in proximity to the skin – this is the arteries, and therefore the pressure is more often called blood. Blood pressure depends primarily on the strength and speed of heart contractions and blood volume, which this body can pump in 1 minute. Important are also the properties of the blood and the resistance of the vascular walls.

Norm by age blood pressure of a person is an indicator of stable work of the heart, blood vessels, endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system. The highest pressure is called the systolic, the lower the diastolic. Performance is measured in millimeters of mercury and is written by a slash.

The upper pressure value is responsible for the force with which the blood flows from the heart into the arteries, lower – responsible for vascular tone. The tone of vascular smooth muscles: its functionality is governed by the substance, which is called “renin”. This compound is produced in the kidney, therefore lower pressure is sometimes called the “renal”.

The normal range of blood pressure for different ages

The normal range of blood pressure for different agesThe norm for the man’s pressure by age – the notion of a purely General and uninformative for specific clinical situations. In textbooks on human physiology as indicators of the standards most frequently included the numbers 120/80 mm Hg. Is the pressure at rest in humans middle aged (20-40).

A few decades ago, for age from 40 to 60 was considered the norm pressure 140/90. Accordingly, for people over 60 indicators rose to 150/90. However, since 1999, the world Health Organization refutes the theory about the normality of pressure increase with age and optimal performance for all ages would take 130-110/70-80 mm Hg.

Norm by age blood pressure of the person in 16-20 years allows a lower value of upper and lower indices, and may be alone 100/70 mm Hg.

In medical institutions the normal values for different ages are often determined by the following values:

Blood pressure in male by age:

  • 20 years — 123/76;
  • up to 30 — 126/79;
  • 30-40 — 129/81;
  • 40-50 — 135/83;
  • 50-60 — 142/85;
  • over 70 — 142/80;

Blood pressure in women by age:

  • about 20 — 116/72;
  • up to 30 — 120/75;
  • up to 40 -127/80;
  • up to 50 — 137/84;
  • 60-70 — 144/85;
  • 70 and older — 159/85.

The table above shows that with age, the person still increase the performance of the upper and lower pressure, but the values are only valid for a typical the average clinical cases. Not only increase, but also lowering blood pressure may be a sign of age-related deterioration of the functionality of the body. Doctors recommend people with disorders of indicators to purchase a blood pressure monitor, learn and keep a regular diary of the pressure measurements on certain days.

Rules of blood pressure measurement

Rules of blood pressure measurementThe correct diagnosis depends largely on the correct pressure measurements. Today, the pressure can be measured with conventional tonometer with the imposition of the cuff, and listening to heart tones. The method requires some practice, but gives quite reliable results. Another method – electronic sphygmomanometer, which has a similar principle of operation, but are easier to handle, since the results are displayed on a special Board.

Doctors recommend to follow certain rules when measuring pressure:

  • Before the procedure to exclude physical activity, Smoking, intake;
  • to measure, sitting in a comfortable position;
  • to Provide support for your back;
  • Hand should be placed on the levels of the patient’s chest
  • During the measurement banned to move and talk;
  • it is Desirable to measure the readings on both hands with a break of 10 minutes.

The indicators above or below the norm necessarily require treatment in the clinic, medical advice, passing diagnostic procedures and further treatment in accordance with the diagnosis.

Causes disturbances in blood pressure

Physiological causes of disorders of blood pressure can be very diverse. The most frequent factors influencing the increase/decrease pressure are:

  • the loss of the heart’s ability to contract with the necessary strength, providing the normal ejection of blood;
  • Rheological properties of blood: what it is “thicker”, the harder it is for it to flow through the vessels (increased density of blood is observed in diseases such as, for example, diabetes, some autoimmune pathology);
  • Decrease in elasticity of blood vessels, aided: poor diet, certain medicines, elevated stress on the body;
  • Atherosclerosis (blockage of blood vessels “bad” cholesterol): also leads to hardening of the arteries and veins
  • Sharp contraction/expansion of vessels as a result of hormonal effects (sudden the change of the lumen can cause fear, anger, strong emotions);
  • Pathology of endocrine glands.

Most of the reasons for the increases/decreases in blood pressure a person can eliminate on their own, avoiding, thus, health problems. Rational diet, active life, elimination of stress factors all contribute to the normalization of pressure, and consequently, the preservation of health, regardless of age factors.