Parents of an infant or child under school age, a patient with diabetes, are for him a huge responsibility. The care for such a child requires a lot of time and effort. To teach someone from prying you to substitute – may not be real. So one of the parents may need all the time to be with the child.
Here is a list of skills that you need to master the parents of a child suffering from diabetes:
- Identify the symptoms and take immediate measures for acute complications of diabetes: hypoglycemia, strongly -elevated blood sugar, ketoacidosis;
- To do insulin injections painless;
- To measure blood sugar with glucometer;
- To calculate the appropriate dosage of insulin, depending on the results of measurements of blood glucose;
- The detection of ketones in the urine with test strips;
- Feeding the child with suitable food, diet in diabetes;
- Maintaining physical activity of the child, joint physical training and sports;
- Tactics are actions in the hospital during the hospitalization of a child about diabetes or other diseases.
Every child has the symptoms of hypoglycemia and dehydration occur on its own. Some children become sluggish, others excited, cranky and aggressive. What are the typical symptoms of acute
The period of remission in children with type 1 diabetes
When a patient with type 1 diabetes starts to receive insulin injections, after a few days or weeks after that about 80% of patients state of health is significantly improved. This is called the honeymoon period in diabetes. At this time, the level of glucose in the blood can be normalized so that the need for insulin significantly reduced or completely disappears.
In the honeymoon period blood sugar may remain normal without injections of insulin, even if the patient changes the power or the amount of physical activity. As you know, the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. Partial remission of type 1 diabetes means that some of them continue to operate, i.e., they are not destroyed by attacks the immune system.
The honeymoon period in type 1 diabetes type has its own characteristics in children. Than at an earlier age showed diabetes, the less chance that after the start of treatment will come a partial remission. In any case, the doctors strictly warn children with diabetes and their parents that the honeymoon phase does not prove that diabetes is cured, and is temporary.
Please note that if after diagnosis of diabetes, the child will quickly go on a low-carbohydrate diet, the honeymoon phase will last much longer. It can take several years, and if very lucky, and for life. Read more about this diet when you have diabetes, you can read:
-Insulin and carbohydrates: the truth you should know;
-The best way to reduce blood sugar and sustain its normal.
Because the less varies the level of sugar in the blood, the longer partial remission of type 1 diabetes. It has already been proved by official medicine. Low-carbohydrate diet is very useful to keep the blood glucose in normal and reduce the amplitude of its oscillations is virtually the same as in healthy people without diabetes. It is clear that all these arguments do not relate to those cases where the type 1 diabetes began at the baby, who still eats breast milk.
The child with diabetes in school: tips for parents and teachers
- teachers almost illiterate in relation to diabetes;
- your special problems, to put it mildly, not very interested;
- on the other hand, if a child happens something bad, the school staff is responsible, up to the criminal.
If you choose normal school, and apply to its employees approach of “carrot and stick”, the parents will likely be able to get with child-diabetic at school everything was normal. But you have much to try, and then all the time to control the situation, not to let it take its course.
Parents of a child suffering from diabetes, it is necessary to discuss the situation with a cool head, school Director, and even with all the teachers who teach their child. Special attention should be given to physical education teacher and coach at the sports section, if the child goes down there.
In any case, do not need too much to hope for teachers and the school nurse. School-age children should be taught about himself to care. You and him should think about different situations and to develop an action plan. Thus, the main task is time to stop hypoglycemia, if it happens, to prevent loss of consciousness.
Children suffering from diabetes, must always take a few lumps of sugar, or other sweets that are quickly digested. Sugary drinks are also suitable. When a child goes to school, these sweets should be in the pockets of jackets, coats, uniforms, and additional portion in the portfolio.
An emergency at school, the child-diabetic
A huge problem is the abuse of children over the weak and defenseless peers. Children with diabetes risk is to transfer severe hypoglycemia as a result of stress, fights, and if classmates will hide the briefcase, which contains a backup of sweetness. As parents it is important to ensure that the physical education teacher in the classroom their child adequately.
The child should clearly understand that when the first symptoms of hypoglycemia he needs to get up and eat or drink something sweet. This must be done immediately, right during the lesson. The child should be assured that the teacher will not punish him for it, and classmates will not laugh.
In children with elevated blood sugar levels are frequent urination, and so they often ask to go to the toilet during lessons. Parents should make sure that teachers will perceive this situation normally and calmly let go of the child. And if will ridicule from classmates, they will stop.
This is the right time once again to remind you: the low-carbohydrate diet helps to keep diabetes blood sugar normal, and also to reduce the amplitude of its oscillations. The fewer carbohydrates will have a child with diabetes, the less it will have problems. Including, there will be no need to run to the toilet during lessons. This does not negate the need to have carbohydrates in case of hypoglycemia.
Meals and insulin injections while in school
An important issue is the child’s diet-diabetic in the school cafeteria, as well as insulin injections before meals. Read “Diet for diabetes type 1 in children. The dining room staff should be aware of what foods not to give your child. And most importantly he should know and feel in their own skin”, what harm him cause Smoking products.
Where the child is going to take a shot short or ultrashort insulin before meals? Right in the class? In the office of the nurse? In some other place? What if the nurse is closed? Who will see what insulin dose was received by the child in the syringe or syringe-pen? These are important questions that parents need to decide in advance.
Develop your child’s action plan in case of an emergency at school and on the way to school or back home. What to do if the portfolio of food was closed in the class? What to do if classmates bullied? If you are stuck in the Elevator? If you lost the key to the apartment?
It is not desirable to allow the child suffering from diabetes, sports, excursions, mugs, etc. In each of these situations, it must have a plan, how to prevent hypoglycemia or to quickly arrest the symptoms. It is important that the child find activities of interest. Try to develop his ability.
1 diabetes and type 2 in children
If your child was diagnosed with diabetes type 1 read the article “Diabetes type 1 in children, there all is in detail told. And here we will discuss characteristics of type 2 diabetes in young patients. This disease usually begins to emerge in the middle of puberty, although blood sugar in a patient with elevated long before that time.
For children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes have good news and bad. Let’s start with the bad. At least 80% of children with type 2 diabetes are obese. The child bears the brunt of the problems posed by diabetes itself, plus the difficulties associated with excess weight.
Special problems of a child with type 2 diabetes can be so unbearable that he will complete in itself and will avoid any activity. It is a direct way to the development of a “bouquet” of the complications of diabetes. Parents can do much to prevent such a scenario. The main thing is to ensure that the child is not bullied at school about his obesity.
Now for the good news. Type 2 diabetes better treated with a low-carbohydrate diet than type 1 diabetes. With high probability, the child with diabetes type 2 insulin injections do not need it. And then, if necessary, the dosage will be very low.
“Siofor” with type 2 diabetes in children
If low-carbohydrate diet and exercise do not help to achieve good compensation of type 2 diabetes in a child (it is unlikely that this will happen), the doctor (!) you can try the medicine Metformin (siofor, glucofit). And if it does not help – then insulin injections.
Siofor is now the main tablets, which is used in diabetes mellitus type 2 in the world. Assign it to children and adolescents not officially recommends that the Ministry of health in the US, neither in Europe, nor in other countries. However, this is already done, and treatment is often successful, i.e., blood sugar significantly reduced.
This drug is able to normalize irregular menstrual cycle in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. That, in turn, increases the risk of unplanned pregnancy. The discussion of contraception diabetes with girls of childbearing age should be part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes… and the first type too.
Siofor is contraindicated if the diabetes has caused renal dysfunction. Therefore, before reception it is necessary to hand over analyses and to consult with your doctor. In most cases, low-carbohydrate diet is highly effective, and Metformin is not needed. Proper nutrition should be enough to take control of type 2 diabetes in children. With high probability, the patient will lose weight.
Vascular complications of diabetes in children
Vascular (late) complications of diabetes in children are rare. Because they simply do not have time to develop in a short term course of the disease. However, children with type 1 diabetes or type 2 should be screened annually – check how his kidneys and there are no complications of diabetes on vision.
If you develop complications of diabetes, doctors prescribe medications, and perform different procedures. To some extent it helps to slow down the deterioration of the health of the patient. But the best measure for the treatment and prevention of complications of diabetes is to achieve and maintain normal blood sugar.
No other methods can give a quarter of that effect, which provides the conversion of blood glucose to normal values. If the patient turns out to keep your blood sugar close to normal most of the complications of diabetes are, even severe kidney damage and blood vessels of the eye.
If the parents and the child are interested in how to prevent diabetes complications, they will try to achieve a good compensation of the disease. The best way to do this – diabetic to eat less carbohydrates. He should consume foods rich in protein, natural fats, and fiber.
Examination by ophthalmologist children with diabetes
Immediately after diagnosis of diabetes, the child should take the examination with an ophthalmologist. Further, with the duration of diabetes from 2 to 5 years to be checked by an ophthalmologist is necessary every year from age 11. When the duration of diabetes more than 5 years – annual examination by an ophthalmologist, since 9 years. Do it preferably in the clinic, and in a specialized medical institution for diabetics.
What draws the attention of the ophthalmologist, when examining children with diabetes:
- examine the eyelids and the eyeball;
- the level of intraocular pressure is determined 1 year in patients with duration of diabetes of 10 years or more;
conducts biomicroscopy of the anterior eye.
If the level of intraocular pressure, it is necessary to conduct additional studies after pupil dilation:
- biomicroscopy of the eye lens and steklovidnogo body using a slit lamp;
- is inverse and direct ophthalmoscopy – sequentially from the center to the extreme periphery, in all meridians;
- while carefully examining the optic disc and macular region;
- explore the vitreous body and the retina at the slit lamp using trehserijnuju lens Goldman;
- to photograph the fundus of the eye using a standard fundus camera or nemidreatic camera; the data recorded and archived in electronic form.
The most sensitive methods for diagnosis of retinopathy (diabetic eye) is a stereoscopic photographing of the fundus and fluoresceine angiography. According to the results of the examination, the doctor may prescribe the procedure of laser panretinal photocoagulation. Many diabetes patients this procedure is 50% slows vision loss.
Complications of diabetes on the kidneys in children
For early diagnosis of complications of diabetes on kidney patient needs to undergo tests that check the operation of the kidney. If appears in the urine protein – hence, the filtration function of the kidneys deteriorated. In this case, first appears in the urine protein albumin, and then molecules to other proteins of larger size. If protein in the urine is not – all right.
When the duration of diabetes 2-5 years – urine analysis for the hypertensive child must pass every year since the age of 11 years. If diabetes lasts 5 years or longer since the age of 9 years.
Microalbuminuria is the first sign of development of diabetic nephropathy, i.e. kidney, which causes diabetes. It is determined by results of the analysis:
- level of excretion of albumin 20-200 µg min or 30-300 μg per day;
- concentration of albumin in the first morning portion of urine 30-300 mg/l;
- ratio of albumin/creatinine of 2.5-25 mg/mol or 30-300 mg/L.
- Diabetic nephropathy;
- Renal involvement in diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes in children: conclusions
So, you have to know what features of diabetes mellitus in children. I hope this information will be useful for parents, teachers, pediatricians and the young diabetics. Parents of a child with diabetes need to learn many skills. Our site has a detailed and understandable articles that you will find everything you need to know to do this.
We remind you that the best way to maintain normal blood sugar diabetes is a diet with restriction of carbohydrates. It is suitable for children from kindergarten age. In addition to their other advantages, low-carbohydrate diet in diabetes reduces the risk of hypoglycemia, because it allows more time to reduce the dosage of insulin.