Infectious diseases

Yellow fever


Yellow fever - causes, symptoms and treatment

Yellow fever acute hemorrhagic vector-borne disease of viral etiology, zooantroponoses tropical Africa and South America. Characterized by a severe course with high fever, liver and kidneys, jaundice, bleeding from the digestive tract.

Causes and Symptoms of yellow fever

Transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes.

Disease begins abruptly, with severe headache, severe lower back pain, back, limbs. Body temperature by the end of the 1st day reaches 39-40°C and above. Appears hyperemia and puffiness of face, swelling of the eyelids, injection of vascular sclera and conjunctiva. The pulse quickens to 100-130 in 1 min On the 2nd day the patient’s condition deteriorates, the above symptoms align with a painful thirst, nausea, repeated vomiting mucus and then bile. The mucous membrane of the oral cavity hyperemic, dry tongue, the sides of the tongue red.

Causes and Symptoms of yellow feverBy the end of the first period (3-4th day of illness) can appear cyanosis, jaundice, slight admixture of blood in the vomit. On the 4-5th day of illness the patient’s condition improves, the body temperature drops to subfebrile (stage of remission). However, after a few hours the temperature rises again, the patient’s condition is getting progressively worse – coming jet age. Developing thrombohemorrhagic syndrome in the form of bloody vomiting, bleeding from the nose, intestine, uterus, appear on the skin petechiae and larger hemorrhages. The patient’s face becomes pale. Pulse rare (up to 50-40 beats/min) that does not match an elevated temperature (symptom Page), blood pressure falls, the amount of urine decreases, sometimes anuria develops. In the urine large amounts of protein and cylinders. Increasing weakness, delirium appears.

In severe cases death occurs from renal failure or collapse infectious (infectious-toxic shock).

the favorable outcome from the 7-9 th day the patient’s condition gradually improved. In mild cases the symptoms are mild, jaundice and thrombohemorrhagic syndrome may not be.

In very severe forms, patients can die on 2-3rd day of illness before the development of jaundice (fulminant form).

Diagnostics of yellow fever

Detection of yellow fever based on epidemiological assumptions (stay in endemic areas, the incidence of yellow fever, etc.) and clinical data. From laboratory studies diagnostic value are: leukopenia, neutropenia, and the detection of protein cylinders in the urine, and increase of bilirubin in the serum, urea nitrogen and a significant increase in serum aminotransferases activity.

Characteristic changes revealed by histological examination of liver biopsy specimens. The serological methods used RSC, the reaction of neutralization and HAI, but the latter often gives a positive reaction with other viruses. The study was conducted with paired sera.

Treatment for yellow fever

There is no Specific treatment. All therapeutic measures are reduced to the use of pathogenic agents.

Prevention

Preventive measures aimed at preventing the introduction of the pathogen from abroad and is based on compliance with International health regulations and Rules on sanitary protection of the territory. Hold mosquitoes and destruction of breeding sites, protection areas and use of personal protective equipment.