Allergic contact dermatitis – a common allergic disease, occurring with a lesion of the skin resulting from direct skin contact with the allergen.
Accurate data on the prevalence ofallergic contact dermatitis is due to existing weaknesses in the identification and registration of these States. Several authors indicates that at least two out of every 100 people suffer from allergic contact dermatitis. In addition, allergic contact dermatitis makes up to 90% of all occupational diseases associated with the skin lesions.
From personal experience I can say that the number of patients with allergic contact dermatitis every year becomes more and more.
Causes of allergic contact dermatitis
From the very first moment of contact with the allergen (the allergen – a substance that causes an allergic reaction) prior to the occurrence of symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis takes place not less than 14 days. In a patient with already developed allergies and sensitivity to this substance at this time is reduced to three days. Such a relatively slow rate of development of symptoms distinguishes allergic contact dermatitis from allergic reactions of immediate type (e.g. atopic dermatitis), in which the rate of development of symptoms may be calculated by minutes.
For the development of sallergic contact dermatitis allergen should have close and prolonged contact with skin. Currently describes more than three thousand substances that can trigger the development of allergic contact dermatitis. And this number continues daily to increase. We will provide some common allergens…
Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis
The disease may be acute or chronic, which is determined by the frequency of contact with the allergen. The severity of Allergy symptoms depends on the duration of contact with the allergen and its chemical activity.
Typical symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis are redness, swelling, oozing, the appearance of bubbles at the site of inflammation. The occurrence of the above symptoms, accompanied by intense pruritus.
the Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis can be placed directly in contact with the allergen, and either from this zone at some distance.
the Symptoms of allergic contact dermatitis more intense in younger patients. Also there is a direct relationship between dose received allergen and the severity of manifestations.
In the long course of the disease (chronic form) in place of regular contact with the allergen there is a thickening of the skin, a significant figure increased skin, dry skin. Perhaps the appearance of cracks…
Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis
The diagnosis is based on characteristic symptoms, identified contacts with potential allergens.
Accurately identify the allergen that causes the allergic disease cutaneous allow application tests (patch tests). They are a sticky paper plate, coated with the allergen. On a single wafer can be more than ten different allergens. These strips are glued to the skin of the back for 48 hours. I think we should say that the skin must be cleaned. If the patient is allergic attitude to any of the tested allergens, the skin below the cell plate is red, there may be mild swelling, and with sharply positive reaction – a small blister. Skin changes quite rapidly after removal of the allergen from the skin. These diagnostic tests can be freely bought in pharmacies, their use is absolutely safe for the patient. But to interpret the results still have doctor who has experience with such test systems. The results of the analysis will not affect the intake of antihistamines, but the administration of corticosteroids, including local, you must cancel at least 5 days. Reaction put only in remission of the disease…
Treatment of allergic contact dermatitis
In acute inflammation and the development of soak – do lotions with cold water and/or liquid Burova. Effective local corticosteroids. They are assigned a short course for up to 14 days with a frequency of use 1-2 times a day. Preference should be given to the preparations of the last generation, not containing fluorine. For example, cream and ointment Elokim, advantan, locoid etc. When prescribing a short course drugs are absolutely safe and do not cause changes in the skin.
In very severe reactions possible appointment of corticosteroids inside. The duration of treatment and dosage of medications in this case can be determined only by the doctor, due to the possibility of developing a number of unpleasant side effects from the therapy.
In the complex treatment can be prescribed antihistamines. They will help to reduce swelling and itching. Although their role in treatment of this type of allergic reactions are secondary. Examples of drugs: cethrin, zodac, claritin, zyrtec, aerius etc. They are appointed once a day, treatment not less than 10 days.
Diet and lifestyle with allergic contact dermatitis.
A critical component of treatment of allergic contact dermatitis – elimination of the allergen, causing the disease from the environment. The recommendations depend on the type of allergen…
Treatment of allergic contact dermatitis folk remedies.
In the Arsenal of “folk medicine” there are a number of ways, recommended for use in allergic contact dermatitis. For example, I advise you to lubricate the affected areas of the skin of the Apple or cucumber juice, sour cream, butter, make a poultice of grated fresh potatoes. Also erosion washed with a decoction of oak bark or infusion of Hypericum. Inside drink the decoction of celery…
Allergic contact dermatitis in children.
In children this disease almost never occurs due to the nature of the immune response in the first years of life. The fact that allergic contact dermatitis is a disease, flowing type of excessive cellular immune response, and this is part of the immune system in children during the first years of life functions rather poorly.
Children can be contact dermatitis, is quite similar to allergic, but do not have an immune nature. The cause of contact dermatitis is direct damage to the upper layer of the skin. A classic example of such reactions is diaper dermatitis that occurs in infants of the first year of life if used improperly diapers.
Allergic contact dermatitis and pregnancy.
In pregnant women the disease has no significant differences compared with the rest of the contingent of patients. Treatment try to have the most complete elimination of the allergen from the environment. Should be committed to the treatment with minimal drug load. Prescribed drugs local action, antihistamines for 3 generations, for example, Telfast, inside.
Complications of allergic contact dermatitis
Forecast favorable for life. When dealing with allergens is a complete cure of the disease. Harder when an allergic reaction develops on professional allergens that the patient meets at work. In this case, sometimes you have to change the nature of the profession that can lead to social maladjustment of the patient and personal tragedy.
Prevention of allergic contact dermatitis
Primary prevention aimed at preventing the development of the disease does not exist. Some authors recommend to pay attention to the material jewelry, for example, when piercing. Since in this case there is prolonged contact with potential allergens skin. It is preferable to use resistant to the oxidation of metals (titanium, gold, silver, etc.) and avoid cheap alloys, particularly those containing Nickel.
When you already developed the disease prevention is aimed at the prevention of exacerbations and consists in the cessation of contact with the allergen.
The most commonly dermatitis from exposure to chemical factors arise in production and they are regarded as occupational hazards. People suffering from dermatitis as a result of the impact of paint tools, oils, etc. in a production environment it is first necessary to observe the rules of personal hygiene: the most frequent change of work clothes, taking a shower after each shift, the most rapid neutralization of irritating substances, trapped on the skin by various means. The systematic occurrence of occupational dermatitis, a transition of the sick to work, eliminating the possibility of contact with this razdaushemy factor.
The problem of chronic contact dermatitis is common in life. Often people are not able to refuse contact with the irritating substance. Professional musicians often allergic contact dermatitis from constant contact with an irritant, used in the composition of a musical instrument. To stabilize the process affected skin you first need to try to pick up another tool. Mean replacement of the composition of the skin contact surfaces ( composition of wood, strings, etc.).