Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis) is an acute General allergic reaction in humans that occurs with repeated contact with the allergen.
Anaphylaxis can be caused by any allergen, but most often they are insect venom, some foods or medications. The penetration of the allergen into the body triggers the release of substances responsible for inflammatory reactions. Therefore, narrowing the Airways and in the lungs arise wheezing, blood vessels dilate, blood pressure decreases, blood vessels leak plasma and there is swelling, the heart begins to malfunction and worse at pumping blood.
Symptoms of Anaphylaxis
Symptoms of Anaphylactic shock develop very quickly. The person begins to feel ill, he has the excitement, quickens the heartbeat, appear itching, redness, swelling, cough, shortness of breath.
Anaphylactic shock is a potentially life-threatening reaction. Anaphylaxis can progress so quickly that collapse, convulsions, unconsciousness or stroke develop over 1-2 minutes. Therefore, without emergency medical aid person can die.
Depending on the method of contact with the allergen in the body modifies the time after which appear the first symptoms. So, an insect bite facilitates almost instant reaction, growing from 1-2 minutes to half an hour. Food Allergy finds himself during most of time from 10 minutes to several hours.
As a rule, the development of symptoms occurs within 5-30 minutes after occurrence. Depending on the severity of the process can be or minor skin itching or acute reaction, exciting the body and leading to death. The faster is the amplification of symptoms, the higher the probability of death if assistance is not provided in time.
Most clearly expressed by the following clinical symptoms that indicate the involvement of various organs and systems:
- Change the skin, characterized by a bright rash with severe itching
- Change the mucous membranes, causing tearing and swelling of eyes, lips, tongue, and nasal passages
- Respiratory Disorders due to the involvement of reactions of the respiratory tract, their swelling and spasms
- Swelling of the throat leading to a sensation of coma, squeezing the neck
- Abdominal Pain, nausea and vomiting, especially when the penetration of the allergen through the esophagus
- The Appearance of false taste sensation like a metal taste in your mouth
- Dizziness, panic reaction
- Rapid heartbeat, drop in blood pressure, fainting or dizziness
Treatment of Anaphylactic shock
Treatment of anaphylactic shock should be performed only by a qualified technician, so the success of the treatment and prognosis depend on the time of calling an ambulance and delivering the patient to the clinic.
The rate of development and severity of symptoms that accompany anaphylaxis, will take her to urgent conditions requiring immediate medical intervention. The terminal phase of this condition is called anaphylactic shock.
Every second counts in cases of suspected anaphylaxis. Have any symptoms you yourself or someone close to you – the first thing you need to call the ambulance. Right given aid before arrival of doctors increases the chances of survival.
Required immediately to eliminate contact with the allergen. If he entered the body through the esophagus, and conscious, performed gastric lavage. If after an insect bite in the body left a sting, then it is removed. You can use a tourniquet above the bite or injection of a drug to slow down its penetration into the body.
Anaphylactic shock is almost guaranteed to manifest when re-entering the allergen into the body. So if you suspect anaphylaxis need to keep a set of emergency aid, including adrenaline injectors.
They are administered intramuscularly in any way the penetration of the allergen. Usually do shot in the back lateral surface of thigh, avoiding contact with adipose tissue. Familiarization with the user manual will tell the correct administration of the drug. Most often after the introduction of the injector for a few seconds fixed in the position in which a drug was introduced. In a few minutes should be followed by improvement, is otherwise admissible repetition of the dose.
If the victim is unconscious, you must give the body a horizontal position, placing the head to one side. Dentures removed from the mouth. Controlled by the safety output of vomit and tongue.
If no pulse, performed CPR and chest compressions – if there is a skill to properly holding these resuscitation.
After rendering the first medical aid General physicians, continuing inpatient treatment. To do this, use the same medicines as in the treatment of allergies. After 2-3 days, at the latest after 10 days, the patient is discharged.
In order to save his life, you need to remember the importance of the prevention of anaphylaxis. Avoid substances containing allergens, places of possible occurrence of insects or the growth of plants that cause allergic reactions. You should always be a set of adrenaline injectors and the passport of allergies.
Prevention of Anaphylactic shock
The person undergoing anaphylactic shock, high likelihood of recurrence of this condition. So people, inevitably faced with the allergen (e.g., bees in the country) prescribed long-term immunotherapy.
Before the introduction of drugs that can cause anaphylaxis, skin tests administered or antihistamines.
All new drugs for patients with anaphylactic shock can only be applied in the clinic under supervision of a doctor.