Extremely dangerous condition of the newborn: an absence of spontaneous respiration in the presence of all other signs of life. Asphyxia can be caused by compression of the chest, stomach and respiratory tract, hit them in mucus, amniotic fluid or blood.
This condition leads to oxygen starvation and excessive concentration of carbon dioxide in the body of the child, which may result in disturbances in the Central nervous system (CNS), respiratory and circulatory. Various forms of asphyxia occur in 70% of newborns, and if a mild form does not cause much harm, severe form may pose a threat to their lives.
Asphyxia in Newborn Child
It is customary to distinguish between congenital asphyxia, which develops in utero, and acquired, incurred after the baby is born. Premature infants are more likely to occur purchased asphyxia, because their respiratory system is weaker than in children born at term.
Symptoms of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy?
When asphyxia mild or moderate (5-6 points on the Apgar scale), skin and mucous membranes baby have a bluish tint, the breath is shallow and irregular, heartbeat rarer and weaker than usual.
Muscle tone is maintained, although it may be somewhat reduced.
Severe experts call “white asphyxia” due to the fact that a baby’s skin is much paler than usual. The mucous membranes are also bluish, breathing even more rare and superficial, and in some cases may be omitted). The pulse is palpated very weak muscle tone is greatly reduced. Severe asphyxia 1-4 corresponds to points on the Apgar scale.
How to prevent the occurrence of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy?
The risk of asphyxia can be reduced, if the expectant mother will be time to pass all the examinations will come to come without pathology. During delivery it is important to avoid prolonged hypoxia (fetal lack of oxygen), especially in the second period. Immediately after birth of the child and with signs of asphyxia, must quickly be exhausted from the upper respiratory tract of the baby’s mucus, which creates a mechanical obstruction to normal breathing.
Action upon detection of asphyxia in the hospital?
A child born in a state of asphyxia, in need of emergency assistance, and the sooner it will be provided, the higher its efficiency. When newborn resuscitation achieve patency his airway, maintain normal body temperature by warming and stimulates respiration. If after 20 seconds after the baby is born his breathing is irregular or absent, and heart rate below normal, he is doing through the oxygen mask ventilation. In the event of failure of ventilation through a mask within one minute, or if the child has inhaled amniotic fluid, injected into the trachea of an endotracheal tube with subsequent artificial ventilation of the lungs. If the heart rate of the newborn does not exceed 80 beats per minute, in parallel with the ventilation doing chest compressions; in special cases intravenously injected epinephrine solution, prednisolone or hydrocortisone.
What are the consequences of asphyxia of the newborn?
Moved sleep apnea can affect the nervous system of the baby: he may be restless, or, on the contrary, sluggish, possible vomiting, tremor (shaking), General developmental delays. After asphyxia child, it is recommended that the supervision of a neurologist, special massage and gymnastics.