One of the most common health complaints of elderly people is increasing blood pressure. This pathology is able to explain any changes in mood, bad mood and other unpleasant things. Blood pressure can rise and fall several times in one day, and the normal pressure of a person is a purely individual concept.
- use our blood pressure calculator to calculate BP values for your age
- or blood pressure chart
What is blood pressure and what indicators are considered to be normal?
Blood pressure – a General term indicating the force with which blood presses against the walls of blood vessels, it is more correct to call it – blood pressure, it has the value of the pressure in the arteries and veins and capillaries. But the measure without the aid of special devices is possible only the pressure in large arteries on the surface of the body in the arteries.
Blood pressure – it depends on what speed and power is reduced a person’s heart, how much blood it can pump in one minute, from the properties of the blood and resistance of blood vessels.
Blood pressure 120 over 80 – is the norm
Factors affecting the value of blood pressure:
- from the blood rheology – the “thicker” the blood, the harder it moves through the blood vessels, diseases such as diabetes, increased clotting, greatly impeding the flow of blood and can lead to problems with blood pressure, thick blood, some doctors prescribe treatment with leeches;
- the heart’s ability to contract with sufficient force to ensure the normal ejection of blood through the vessels;
- elasticity of walls of blood vessels – the blood vessels wear out over time and cannot withstand the increased load – it becomes the cause of development of hypertension in the elderly,
- atherosclerotic changes reduce the elasticity of the walls;
- a sharp contraction or expansion of blood vessels – as a result of disruption of the nerve or hormonal changes, there is a sharp contraction or expansion of blood vessels – for example, when fear, anger or other strong emotions;
- diseases of the endocrine glands.
Normal pressure is determined by the collection of a large number of parameters, and for each age, gender and for the individual, its performance can vary greatly. For medical standards took average values in healthy people of a certain age. Proven that blood pressure 120/80 cannot and should not be considered as an ideal norm for people of different ages.
To find out what is the normal pressure in humans must be in different age periods, you can use the following table:
The blood pressure of an adult
- Normal blood pressure is considered to be in the range of 110/70 to 130/85 mm Hg.
- Low normal pressure – 110/70 – 100/60;
- Low blood pressure – hypotension – below 100/60;
- High blood pressure normal – 130/85- 139/89;
- High blood pressure – hypertension – is greater than 140/90 mm Hg.
Indicators of normal blood pressure for different age periods:
- 16 – 20 years – 100/70 – 120/80 mm Hg.
- 20 – 40 years – 120/70 – 130/80;
- 40 – 60 years to 140/90;
- over 60 years – to 150/90 mm Hg.
From the above table, it is clear that the greater the age of the person, the higher than normal blood pressure is associated with age-related changes in the vessels in the heart muscle and in other organs. High blood pressure, as well as dips, can cause various health problems, but in order to determine whether to blame the change in the level of pressure in a bad mood, you need to regularly measure it and keep a special diary. It is not enough for multiple trips to the clinic or doctor visits, only daily regular measurements of pressure, can give correct results.
Blood pressure measurement
The correctness of the diagnosis and treatment largely depends on the correctness of blood pressure measurement, because the doctor who prescribed the medicine or prescribe treatment, largely focused on the numbers.
Today, there are different ways of measuring pressure:
- The easiest and old – using a cuff and sphygmomanometer: is of great importance correct cuff overlay, the ability to use a blood pressure cuff and listen to the heart tones. This measurement requires special training and skills, but when used properly, gives a fairly accurate and reliable results.
- Electromanometer the principle of operation is the same, but the results are visible on a special Board. This facilitates an independent measurement of pressure and provides more accurate results. But these lamps often break and can show wrong figures.
Whichever way you carried out the measurement of blood pressure, it is necessary to observe some General rules:
- before measurement, half an hour before, to eliminate physical exertion, nervous tension, Smoking, eating and so on
- to relax, comfortably seated in the measurement,
- posture should be comfortable, back straight, one must have support hand should be free to lie at the level of the patient’s breast,
- during the measurement it is impossible to talk and move,
- to carry out measurement on both hands and preferably a series of measurements with an interval of 5-10 minutes.
If, after a properly conducted blood pressure measurements, rates differ greatly from the norm, it is necessary to repeat measurements over several days and upon confirmation, to go to the doctor.
High blood pressure
Considered one of the most dangerous diseases of mankind, hypertension affects about 25% of people worldwide, and this number continues to increase. Hypertension is called high blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg
Causes of hypertension can be:
- excess weight
- genetic predisposition
- diseases of the internal organs
- lack of physical activity
- smoking and alcohol
- excessive use of salt
- nervous overstrain,
- other factors.
Hypertension the patient is suffering from headaches (and there are pills for headaches don’t help), shortness of breath, heart pain, fatigue, sleeplessness, poor health and other symptoms. In addition, increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, brain lesions, pathology of the urinary system and eye diseases.
Treatment of hypertension is a very complex and time-consuming process, where the compliance with doctor’s recommendations depends on the outcome of the disease. It is important to find the cause of the increase in pressure and act on it. Simultaneously providing symptomatic treatment. In each case, drugs, doses, and their combination should be chosen individually by the treating doctor.
Without timely treatment or uncontrolled medication hypertension can not only harm your health, but also cause this life-threatening condition, such as hypertensive crisis.
Hypertensive crisis is a life-threatening condition caused by a sharp rise in blood pressure and damage to the nervous system and target organs. The numbers of blood pressure during hypertensive crisis may be very different in different patients – someone normally carries 200/150 mm Hg and someone bad already at 150/85 mm Hg the Nature of lesions in hypertensive crisis depends on which bodies have previously been pathology – if you hurt the heart, can occur myocardial infarction, if tortured – headaches – stroke and so on.
Causes of hypertensive crisis are:
- physical effort
- weather changes
- food with high content of salt
- incorrectly selected anti-hypertensive drugs
- diseases of the endocrine system and internal organs.
With the development of hypertensive crisis, the patient’s General condition worsens, there is a feeling of fear, anxiety, may be nausea, vomiting, darkness before eyes, swelling and redness of the face, chills, tremor of the extremities, fainting, even coma.
If there is similar symptoms, you need to put the patient on any smooth surface with a raised headboard and urgently call an ambulance. Before her arrival to try to ensure that the patient rest, fresh air, get rid of tight clothing, if the patient has long been observed arterial hypertension, it is likely that it takes some kind of anti-hypertensive drug, in this case, before arrival of doctors you can give the patient the usual dosage.
Hypotension – low blood pressure
For many people, especially those with hypertension, it seems that the decrease in pressure may not be a problem, but actually it is not. Constantly reduced blood pressure, capable to cause less discomfort and cause health problems than the hypertension.
The reasons for such a pathology can be genetic predisposition, malnutrition and beriberi, endocrine diseases, emotional tension, General exhaustion and other problems.
People suffering from hypotension, feeling constantly tired, overwhelmed, he struggles to perform daily duties and emotionally inhibited. In addition, there is a decrease in memory and brain activity, poor thermoregulation, increased sweating, headaches, drowsiness, pain in the joints and muscles, and General disturbance of health.
Although unlike hypertension, hypotension does not cause serious health problems, she also needs treatment. And to determine the cause of hypotension and prescribe treatment can only a doctor, after a detailed examination. And without medical care, it may be advisable to establish a regime of work and rest, eat well, do not be nervous and to give up bad habits.
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