The modern world diagnostics in cardiology offers a variety of methods that allow early detection of pathology and anomalies. One of such methods is a Cardiac Ultrasound. A survey of this kind has many advantages. This high information content and accuracy, ease of implementation, the minimum possible contraindications, no elaborate preparation. Ultrasound can be performed not only in specialized departments and offices, but even in the ICU, in conventional wards of the Department or in an ambulance for urgent hospitalization of the patient. In such a Cardiac Ultrasound help various portable devices, as well as the newest equipment.
What is a Cardiac Ultrasound
With this examination, the specialist in ultrasound diagnostics can obtain an image in which he defines pathology. For this purpose, a special apparatus, which comprises an ultrasonic sensor. This sensor is tightly put to the patient’s chest, and the resulting image displayed on the monitor. There is the concept of “standard position”. This can be called a standard “kit” examination is necessary for the images that the doctor was able to formulate an opinion. For each position means the position of the sensor or access. Each position sensor gives the physician the opportunity to see the different structures of the heart, to consider the vessels. Many patients notice that during the ultrasound sensor is not just betting on the chest, but tilt it or turn that allows you to see different plane. In addition to standard approaches exist and additional. They are used only when necessary.
What diseases diagnose Cardiac Ultrasound
List of possible abnormalities that can be seen on ultrasound of the heart is very large. We list the main features of the survey in diagnosis:
– coronary heart disease;
– survey on hypertension;
– diseases of the aorta;
– diseases of the pericardium;
– intracardiac education;
– the defeat of the endocardium;
– acquired valvular disease of the heart;
– the study of the mechanical valve dysfunction and diagnosis of valvular prostheses;
– diagnosis of heart failure.
Any complaints of feeling unwell, when you have pain and discomfort in the heart, as well as other disturbing signs you should consult a cardiologist. He decides on the survey.
Normal ultrasound of the heart
It is difficult to enumerate all the rules ultrasound of the heart, but we’ll get to some.
The be Sure to define the front and rear doors, two commissure, chordae and papillary muscles of the mitral ring. Some normal values:
– the thickness of the mitral cusps up to 2 mm;
– the diameter of the annulus – 2,0-2.6 cm;
– diameter mitral orifice 2 -3 cm.
– the area of the mitral orifice 4 to 6 cm2.
– the circumference of the left heart hole in 25-40 years 6-9 cm;
– the circumference of the left heart hole in 41-55 years – 9,1-12 cm;
– active, but smooth movement of the flaps;
– folds flat surface;
– the deflection of the flaps into the cavity of the left atrium during systole no more than 2 mm;
– chord visible as a thin, linear structure.
– systolic disclosure of the flaps more than 15-16 mm;
– the area of the aortic orifice 2 to 4 cm2.
– fold in proportion to the same;
– full opening in systole, well closed in diastole;
– aortic ring average uniform echogenicity.
Tricuspid valve (tricuspid) valve:
– the area of the valve orifice is 6-7 cm2;
– folds can be split, to reach a thickness up to 2 mm.
– the thickness of the posterior wall in diastole 8-11 mm, and cardiac septum – 7-10 cm
– weight of infarction in men – 135 g, myocardial mass in women 95 grams.