What should be the normal temperature of the child? That in addition of the disease can improve? What are the rules of temperature measurement we do not know or forget?
As you know, the normal body temperature of a healthy child is 36-37 °C. However, it is established that each body has its own temperature. The highest temperature of the liver, slightly below the temperature of other internal organs. Skin temperature just above armpit — 36,0–36,8 °C. Approximately half of the children found the asymmetry of the axillary temperature, with most of the body temperature on the left is slightly higher (by 0.1–0.5 °C) than on the right.
Fever in Children
Slightly below the skin temperature of the neck (34 °C). It’s good to know, as sometimes focus on the body temperature measured in the skin fold of the neck. Particularly low skin temperature of the hands and feet of 24-28 °C. Along with temperature measurement in the axillary regions, adopted in our country, widely used in children determination of the temperature in the mouth (under the tongue), as well as in the rectum. It is important to know that the temperature in the oral cavity of the axilla is higher by 0.1–0.4 °C and in the rectum is 0.5–1.0 °C.
Children’s temperature chart (by age)
Body temperature depends on age. In premature infants due to their inherent characteristics (low activity of metabolism, low weight with a relatively large surface of the body, thinning of the subcutaneous fat layer, imperfect thermoregulation) body temperature depends largely on the ambient temperature.
the body Temperature in children of early age in average by 0.3–0.4 °C higher than that of adults, and to a greater extent than in adults, susceptible to fluctuations.
The body temperature of a child depends on many factors. Well-known daily fluctuations of body temperature: the lowest body temperature in children is usually 4-5 hours in the morning and highest in 16-17 hours. The daily amplitude of body temperature is a nine-month baby is about 0.9, in children 2-5 years — of 0.6–1.0 °C. In children older than 5 years at rest body temperature varies in the range 0.3–0.5 °C.
During intense muscular load (when moving games, physical education classes, as well as prolonged screaming, crying) the baby’s body temperature may rise 1-2 degrees (to 38 °C). The child’s body temperature rises after eating, and the increase depends on the composition of food eaten (max — after meat products).
The body temperature of a fat baby with high anxiety, being constantly in motion, always a few degrees higher than the child apathetic, preferring noisy games, quiet activities — reading books, drawing and etc. It does not require correction, if the child feels good.
The infants thermoregulation is still not quite perfect. In a healthy child the first years of life energy abounds. He during wakefulness never sits still and is able to drive dad and mom, and grandmothers. The production of heat in the body of a child with excess, but with the heat problem. Excessive heat the child pays by convection from the body surface by evaporation and by transpiration through heat exchange of inhaled and exhaled air.
The intensity of all three ways of heat transfer depends on the difference between the body temperature of the child and the ambient temperature. And if the temperature in premises is 24-25 °C, and the child is dressed in a suit, he will not be able to give the excess heat. And his body temperature can be several tenths of a degree to exceed 37 °C. This is not the disease, but the regulatory system are overburdened, and it is very easy to catch a cold.
When to measure the temperature of the child
Thus, a good idea if you will know exactly what is the body temperature of an individual is the norm for your child. However, do not abuse the measurement of body temperature in a healthy child with no signs of disease.
Several elevated body temperature may be normal for your child, but is always the reason for going to the doctor and examination, as may be the main manifestation of indolent diseases (e.g. urinary tract infection). If your child’s body temperature exceeds 38 °C, regardless of what he did, this is a manifestation of the disease.
The Reason for the temperature measurement must be a violation of the child’s health.
Change the child’s behavior: there is increased motor activity, the baby becomes fretful, irritable, disturbed sleep. Her eyes a feverish glitter, face “glows”, the skin hot to the touch. In other cases, on the contrary, the child becomes listless, apathetic, refuses to eat, the skin becomes pale, “marble”, cold to the touch limbs, skin covered spine, forehead cold sweat, shivering child.
Some mothers in the evaluation of body temperature of the child folk used the old method: apply to the forehead of the child her lips. The way, of course, tested, but, first, it is subjective and, secondly, not revealing if the child has chills.
Measure body temperature properly
Still preferable when evaluating the body temperature of the child to use the thermometer. To measure the body temperature of the child it is advisable between meals, after more than one hour after exercise, and it is desirable that the measurement of body temperature was not accompanied by shouting, resistance and tears. In Europe and the United States the generally accepted method is the measurement of body temperature in the armpit using a mercury or digital thermometer.
Usually body temperature is measured in the left axilla. The thermometer should not be cold — otherwise the procedure will cause a negative reaction of the child. Therefore before measuring it is advisable 3-5 minutes to hold the thermometer in the palm of your hand. Before you put a mercury thermometer, shake it so that the column of mercury fell below 36 °C.
The child holds the thermometer in the armpit for 5-7 minutes. In the first 2 minutes, the column of mercury rises rapidly, and in the subsequent lift is a fraction of a degree, not critical. Therefore, to approximate the temperature of the body sufficiently to hold the thermometer for 2 minutes. To measure temperature with electronic thermometer takes about 1-2 minutes.
In some cases, the temperature measured in the rectum (normal up to 38 °C). For this purpose, the tip of the thermometer grease with vaseline or glycerine. The child is placed on his stomach on the knees of one of the parents (of school-age children laid on its side with a toned stomach knees). The thermometer is gently introduced into the anus to a depth of 2 cm, hold in this position for one minute. Approximately body temperature can be measured in 20 seconds.
Usually if a child’s body temperature is measured 2 times a day — morning and in 16-17 hours. But in the acute period of the disease when possible fast high rises in body temperature, it is advisable to measure every 3-4 hours. Control of body temperature, usually continue to normalize.
Causes of fever in children
The mechanism of rise in body temperature, in principle, universal. It is based on irritation resides in the brain centers of regulation, leading to increased generation of body heat and reduce heat transfer.
In infectious diseases the fever is due to the action on the body products of metabolism and decay of viruses, bacteria, certain medications. The duration of the febrile period usually coincides with the period of intensive reproduction of the pathogen in the body.
The fever occurs not only in infectious diseases but also in immune responses, while destruction of tissue in case of injury, the delay of toxins and products of disturbed metabolism, can be produced by tumor cells. In these cases, higher body temperature reflects the activity of the disease process.