Dermatology - diseases of the skin

Chloasma (estuda, melasma)

Chloasma (estuda, melasma) is the brown spots are not of an inflammatory nature, localized on the cheeks, forehead, sometimes even on the neck. The disease is more vulnerable to those who have dark skin. According to statistics melasma is more common in women than in men (10% of the total number of cases).

Causes of chloasma

Causes of chloasma• Pigmentation this type occurs because of an overproduction of melanin pigment cells – melanocytes.
• There is a genetic predisposition to the disease.
• When the exact cause of the disease is not clarified, it is believed that the chloasma occurs under the influence of hormones. For this reason, it is most often appears in pregnant women, use of contraceptives and other hormonal drugs.
• The sun’s rays stimulate melanin production and increase the probability of occurrence of melasma.
• The use of certain cosmetic products or ingredients, such as bergamot, can exacerbate the disease.

What are some dangerous diseases easily confused the chloasma

• Adnexitis – inflammation of the appendages, which occurs as the result of an infectious process. The disease may be asymptomatic, affecting only hormonal processes in the body. Therefore, chloasma, in this case, indicates the presence of more serious disease.
Birthmarks – congenital hyperpigmentation of the skin. Can appear on all areas of the face and body. Such stains cannot be eliminated by means of acids or peels, as they can degenerate into a malignant neoplasm.
• Liver disease – can cause metabolic disturbances in the body, as a result, you may experience excessive deposition of melanin in the superficial layers of the dermis.

In some cases you need to consult a doctor

To properly diagnose a chloasma, you must go to a dermatologist, who will collect a detailed history of your disease. Examine pigmentation with the help of special equipment (often a wood’s light), using dermatoscopy will determine the type and depth of the stains.

If you are using birth control pills or hormone therapy and have this type of spots – refer immediately to a gynecologist. May need to replace the way of protection on the other.

Chloasma may spontaneously appear and suddenly disappear. In such cases, a possible cause could be pregnancy. However, if the spots persist for a long period of time, and do not disappear when using creams, you can not do without the advice of a professional.

Symptomatic treatment of chloasma


• Lemon – the acid in lemon juice helps to exfoliate the top layer of skin, lighten pigmentation on the cheeks, nose, forehead and upper lip. Lemon juice mixed with baking soda. Use as a scrub. If you regularly handle your face with this mixture, then the effect should be visible after 3 weeks of use.
• Apple cider vinegar solution removes stains, makes the face lighter. Apple cider vinegar diluted with water one by one and be wiped daily with a mixture of face. Use only fresh solution, diluted in a state not to store!
• Aloe Vera gel – contains mucous polysaccharides that are beneficial to the skin, thus lightening dark spots. The gel obtained from the plant applied on the skin overnight or for 15 minutes after washing your face.
• Turmeric. Mix 5 tablespoons of turmeric powder with 10 tablespoons warm milk (like dough). Apply the mixture to face and allow to dry. After 10 minutes rinse with warm water and wipe dry with a towel. To repeat the procedure every day to lighten the spots.
• Oatmeal with honey. Will these products make them a scrub that will not only help to lighten dark spots on the face but also removes dead skin cells. Oatmeal and honey mix, mix gently massage into the face, leave on for 30 minutes, then rinse with warm water.
• Onion juice – reduces melanin production and lightens dark pigmentation. Just chop 1 onion and add 1 tablespoon of 3%vinegar. RUB the mix all over the face 2 times a day.

Treatment of chloasma a cosmetologist

Some treatments for a cosmetologist to help reduce or prevent the appearance of melasma:

• Chemical peel is an acid, which can exfoliate and bleach the skin cells.
• Microdermabrasion or dermabrasion – abrasive methods of removing the top layers of the skin.
• Laser peeling burning spots by a laser beam.
• Photorejuvenation – discoloration spots using a special lighting device.
• Mesotherapy – vitamin injections.
• Cryotherapy – freezing with liquid nitrogen.


The chemicals used for the treatment of chloasma are characterized by good efficiency but high toxicity. These include: Koiava acid, azalina acid, sedimentary mercury.

These substances are part of many creams and ointments such as Achromin, Meylan, Spurge, Peretola, sulfur and hydroxynonenal ointment. They are sold in pharmacies without a prescription.

The effectiveness of treatment of chloasma

Treatment of chloasmaFrom melasma is very difficult to be cured and even if we manage to get rid of spots, their repeated occurrence has a tendency to frequent relapses.

Be careful in the summer. With frequent use of bleaching agents skin becomes more sensitive to the influence of UF-beams.

In order to avoid the repeated appearance of chloasma, you have to take care of her skin, especially in the summer!
– Use creams with high SPF (protective filter from 30 to 60),
– Eliminate irritating cosmetics and perfumes.
– Drink plenty of water ( up to 1.5 liters per day).
– Eat foods rich in fiber. It removes toxins from the body, reduces discoloration of the skin and prevents the appearance of eczema.

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