In patients with diabetes mellitus long-term (over several years) increase in blood sugar leads to the damage of small vessels (the so-called diabetic microangiopathy) and peripheral nerve endings (diabetic neuropathy), which, in turn, leads to disruption of the normal functioning of organs and tissues of the body.
The network of small blood vessels is the most developed in the retina and kidney, and nerve endings are suitable for all organs (including the heart and the brain), but especially a lot of them in the lower extremities. Therefore, the most frequent manifestations of microvascular complications in diabetes are disorders of the eye (diabetic retinopathy), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy) and lower extremities. In this case, all methods of treatment of these pathological conditions will be ineffective, if not resolved, the main reason is the increased level of sugar in the blood.
Thus, the most important measure for the prevention and treatment of vascular complications of diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels within normal limits. And this can only be achieved with properly chosen antidiabetic therapy and careful self-monitoring of blood glucose levels.
It must be remembered that people with diabetes adverse effect on the vessels also have lipid metabolism (cholesterol, setting on the walls of blood vessels, gradually leads to a narrowing) and Smoking.
To avoid vascular complications, you should regularly take place the following studies:
Daily before each meal to control blood sugar levels.
Two times a year to visit your ophthalmologist. The inspection should take the same physician.
Not less than 4 times per year to provide a urine sample for determination of protein in it – albumin.
Every three months to determine glycated hemoglobin.
Regularly monitor your blood pressure.
To properly care for your feet.